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Presentation of the Members

Vassilios Skouris
Vassilios Skouris
Born 1948; graduated in law from the Free University, Berlin (1970); awarded Doctorate in Constitutional and Administrative Law at Hamburg University (1973); Assistant Professor at Hamburg University (1972-77); Professor of Public Law at Bielefeld University (1978); Professor of Public Law at the University of Thessaloniki (1982); Minister for Internal Affairs (in 1989 and 1996); member of the Administrative Board of the University of Crete (1983-87); Director of the Centre for International and European Economic Law, Thessaloniki (1997-2005); President of the Greek Association for European Law (1992-94); member of the Greek National Research Committee (1993-95); member of the Higher Selection Board for Greek Civil Servants (1994-96); member of the Academic Council of the Academy of European Law, Trier (from 1995); member of the Administrative Board of the Greek National Judges' College (1995-96); member of the Scientific Committee of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1997-99); President of the Greek Economic and Social Council in 1998; Judge at the Court of Justice since 8 June 1999; President of the Court of Justice since 7 October 2003.

Koen Lenaerts

Koen Lenaerts
Born 1954; lic. iuris, Ph.D. in Law (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven); Master of Laws, Master in Public Administration (Harvard University); Lecturer (1979-83), subsequently Professor of European Law, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (since 1983); Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice (1984-85); Professor at the College of Europe, Bruges (1984-89); member of the Brussels Bar (1986-89); Visiting Professor at the Harvard Law School (1989); Judge at the Court of First Instance of the European Communities from 25 September 1989 to 6 October 2003; Judge at the Court of Justice since 7 October 2003; Vice-President of the Court of Justice since 9 October 2012.
Antonio Tizzano

Antonio Tizzano
Born 1940; Professor of European Union Law at La Sapienza University, Rome; Professor at the Istituto Universitario Orientale, Naples (1969-79), Federico II University, Naples (1979-92), the University of Catania (1969-77) and the University of Mogadishu (1967-72); member of the Bar at the Italian Court of Cassation; Legal Adviser to the Permanent Representation of the Italian Republic to the European Communities (1984-92); member of the Italian delegation at the negotiations for the accession of the Kingdom of Spain and the Portuguese Republic to the European Communities, for the Single European Act and for the Treaty on European Union; author of numerous publications, including commentaries on the European Treaties and collections of European Union legal texts; Founder and Director since 1996 of the journal Il Diritto dell'Unione Europea; member of the managing or editorial board of a number of legal journals; rapporteur at numerous international congresses; conferences and courses at various international institutions, including The Hague Academy of International Law (1987); member of the independent group of experts appointed to examine the finances of the Commission of the European Communities (1999); Advocate General at the Court of Justice from 7 October 2000 to 3 May 2006; Judge at the Court of Justice since 4 May 2006.

Allan Rosas
Allan Rosas
Born 1948; Doctor of Laws (1977) of the University of Turku (Finland); Professor of Law at the University of Turku (1978-81) and at the Åbo Akademi University (Turku/Åbo) (1981-96); Director of the latter's Institute for Human Rights (1985-95); various international and national academic positions of responsibility and memberships of learned societies; coordinated several international and national research projects and programmes, including in the fields of EU law, international law, humanitarian and human rights law, constitutional law and comparative public administration; represented the Finnish Government as member of, or adviser to, Finnish delegations at various international conferences and meetings; expert functions in relation to Finnish legal life, including in governmental law commissions and committees of the Finnish Parliament, as well as the UN, Unesco, OSCE (CSCE) and the Council of Europe; from 1995 Principal Legal Adviser at the Legal Service of the European Commission, in charge of external relations; from March 2001, Deputy Director-General of the European Commission Legal Service; Judge at the Court of Justice since 17 January 2002.
Rosario Silva de Lapuerta
Rosario Silva de Lapuerta
Born 1954; Bachelor of Laws (Universidad Complutense, Madrid); Abogado del Estado in Malaga; Abogado del Estado at the Legal Service of the Ministry of Transport, Tourism and Communication and, subsequently, at the Legal Service of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Head Abogado del Estado of the State Legal Service for Cases before the Court of Justice of the European Communities and Deputy Director-General of the Community and International Legal Assistance Department (Ministry of Justice); member of the Commission think tank on the future of the Community judicial system; Head of the Spanish delegation in the ‘Friends of the Presidency' Group with regard to the reform of the Community judicial system in the Treaty of Nice and of the Council ad hoc working party on the Court of Justice; Professor of Community Law at the Diplomatic School, Madrid; Co-director of the journal Noticias de la Unión Europea; Judge at the Court of Justice since 7 October 2003.
Juliane Kokott
Juliane Kokott
Born 1957; law studies (Universities of Bonn and Geneva); LL.M. (American University/Washington DC); Doctor of Laws (Heidelberg University, 1985; Harvard University, 1990); Visiting Professor at the University of California, Berkeley (1991); Professor of German and Foreign Public Law, International Law and European Law at the Universities of Augsburg (1992), Heidelberg (1993) and Düsseldorf (1994); Deputy Judge for the Federal Government at the Court of Conciliation and Arbitration of the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE); Deputy Chairperson of the Federal Government's Advisory Council on Global Change (WBGU, 1996); Professor of International Law, International Business Law and European Law at the University of St Gallen (1999); Director of the Institute for European and International Business Law at the University of St Gallen (2000); Deputy Director of the Master of Business Law programme at the University of St Gallen (2001); Advocate General at the Court of Justice since 7 October 2003.
Endre Juhász
Endre Juhász
Born 1944; graduated in law from the University of Szeged, Hungary (1967); Hungarian Bar Entrance Examinations (1970); postgraduate studies in comparative law, University of Strasbourg, France (1969, 1970, 1971, 1972); official in the Legal Department of the Ministry of Foreign Trade (1966-74); Director for Legislative Matters (1973-74); First Commercial Secretary at the Hungarian Embassy, Brussels, responsible for European Community issues (1974-79); Director at the Ministry of Foreign Trade (1979-83); First Commercial Secretary, then Commercial Counsellor, to the Hungarian Embassy in Washington DC, USA (1983-89); Director-General at the Ministry of Trade and Ministry of International Economic Relations (1989-91); chief negotiator for the Association Agreement between the Republic of Hungary and the European Communities and their Member States (1990-91); Secretary-General of the Ministry of International Economic Relations; Head of the Office of European Affairs (1992); State Secretary at the Ministry of International Economic Relations (1993-94); State Secretary, President of the Office of European Affairs, Ministry of Industry and Trade (1994); Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, Chief of Mission of the Republic of Hungary to the European Union (January 1995 to May 2003); chief negotiator for the accession of the Republic of Hungary to the European Union (July 1998 to April 2003); Minister without portfolio for the coordination of matters of European integration (from May 2003); Judge at the Court of Justice since 11 May 2004.
George Arestis
George Arestis
Born 1945; graduated in law from the University of Athens (1968); MA in Comparative Politics and Government, University of Kent at Canterbury (1970); practice as a lawyer in Cyprus (1972-82); District Court Judge (1982); President of the District Court (1995); Administrative President of the District Court of Nicosia (1997-2003); Judge at the Supreme Court of Cyprus (2003); Judge at the Court of Justice since 11 May 2004.
Anthony Borg Barthet U.O.M.
Anthony Borg Barthet U.O.M.
Born 1947; Doctorate in Law at the Royal University of Malta in 1973; entered the Maltese Civil Service as Notary to the Government in 1975; Counsel for the Republic in 1978, Senior Counsel for the Republic in 1979, Assistant Attorney General in 1988 and appointed Attorney General by the President of Malta in 1989; part-time Lecturer in Civil Law at the University of Malta (1985-89); member of the Council of the University of Malta (1998-2004); member of the Commission for the Administration of Justice (1994-2004); member of the Board of Governors of the Malta Arbitration Centre (1998-2004); Judge at the Court of Justice since 11 May 2004.
Marko Ilešič
Marko Ilešič
Born 1947; Doctor of Law (University of Ljubljana); specialism in comparative law (Universities of Strasbourg and Coimbra); judicial service examination; Professor of Civil, Commercial and Private International Law; Vice-Dean (1995-2001) and Dean (2001-04) of the Faculty of Law at the University of Ljubljana; author of numerous legal publications; Honorary Judge and President of Chamber at the Labour Court, Ljubljana (1975-86); President of the Sports Tribunal of Slovenia (1978-86); President of the Arbitration Chamber of the Ljubljana Stock Exchange; Arbitrator at the Chamber of Commerce of Yugoslavia (until 1991) and Slovenia (from 1991); Arbitrator at the International Chamber of Commerce in Paris; Judge on the Board of Appeals of UEFA and FIFA; President of the Union of Slovene Lawyers' Associations (1993-2005); member of the International Law Association, of the International Maritime Committee and of several other international legal societies; Judge at the Court of Justice since 11 May 2004.
Jiří Malenovský
Jiří Malenovský
Born 1950; Doctor of Law from the Charles University in Prague (1975); senior faculty member (1974-90), Vice-Dean (1989-91) and Head of the Department of International and European Law (1990-92) at       Masaryk University, Brno; Judge at the Constitutional Court of Czechoslovakia (1992); Envoy to the Council of Europe (1993-98); President of the Committee of Ministers' Deputies of the Council of Europe (1995); Senior Director at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1998-2000); President of the Czech and Slovak branch of the International Law Association (1999-2001); Judge at the Constitutional Court (2000-04); member of the Legislative Council (1998-2000); member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague (from 2000); Professor of Public International Law at Masaryk University, Brno (2001); Judge at the Court of Justice since 11 May 2004.
Egils Levits
Egils Levits
Born 1955; graduated in law and in political science from the University of Hamburg; Research Assistant at the Faculty of Law, University of Kiel; Adviser to the Latvian Parliament on questions of international law, constitutional law and legislative reform; Ambassador of the Republic of Latvia to Germany and Switzerland (1992-93), Austria, Switzerland and Hungary (1994-95); Vice Prime Minister and Minister for Justice, acting Minister for Foreign Affairs (1993-94); Conciliator at the Court of Conciliation and Arbitration within the OSCE (from 1997); member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration (from 2001); elected as Judge at the European Court of Human Rights in 1995, re-elected in 1998 and 2001; numerous publications in the spheres of constitutional and administrative law, law reform and European Community law; Judge at the Court of Justice since 11 May 2004.
Aindrias Ó Caoimh
Aindrias Ó Caoimh
Born 1950; Bachelor in Civil Law (National University of Ireland, University College Dublin, 1971); Barrister (King's Inns, 1972); Diploma in European Law (University College Dublin, 1977); Barrister (Bar of Ireland, 1972-99); Lecturer in European Law (King's Inns, Dublin); Senior Counsel (1994-99); Representative of the Government of Ireland on many occasions before the Court of Justice of the European Communities; Judge at the High Court (from 1999); Bencher of the Honourable Society of King's Inns (since 1999); Vice-President of the Irish Society of European Law; member of the International Law Association (Irish Branch); son of Judge Andreas O'Keeffe (Aindrias Ó Caoimh), member of the Court of Justice 1974-85; Judge at the Court of Justice since 13 October 2004.
Lars Bay Larsen
Lars Bay Larsen
Born 1953; awarded degrees in political science (1976) and law (1983) at the University of Copenhagen; official at the Ministry of Justice (1983-85); Lecturer (1984-91), then Associate Professor (1991-96), in Family Law at the University of Copenhagen; Head of Section at the Advokatsamfund (Danish Bar Association) (1985-86); Head of Section (1986-91) at the Ministry of Justice; called to the Bar (1991); Head of Division (1991-95), Head of the Police Department (1995-99) and Head of the Law Department (2000-03) at the Ministry of Justice; Representative of the Kingdom of Denmark on the K-4 Committee (1995-2000), the Schengen Central Group (1996-98) and the Europol Management Board (1998-2000); Judge at the Højesteret (Supreme Court) (2003-06); Judge at the Court of Justice since 11 January 2006.
Eleanor Sharpston
Eleanor Sharpston
Born 1955; studied economics, languages and law at King’s College, Cambridge (1973-77); university teaching and research at Corpus Christi College, Oxford (1977-80); called to the Bar (Middle Temple, 1980); Barrister (1980-87 and 1990-2005); Legal Secretary in the Chambers of Advocate General, subsequently Judge, Sir Gordon Slynn (1987-90); Lecturer in EC and comparative law (Director of European Legal Studies) at University College London (1990-92); Lecturer in the Faculty of Law (1992-98), and subsequently Affiliated Lecturer (1998-2005), at the University of Cambridge; Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge (1992-2010); Emeritus Fellow (2011 - ); Senior Research Fellow at the Centre for European Legal Studies of the University of Cambridge (1998-2005); Queen’s Counsel (1999); Bencher of Middle Temple (2005); Honorary Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford (2010); LL.D (h.c.) Glasgow (2010) and Nottingham Trent (2011); Advocate General at the Court of Justice from 11 January 2006.
Paolo Mengozzi
Paolo Mengozzi
Born 1938; Professor of International Law and holder of the Jean Monnet Chair of European Community law at the University of Bologna; Doctor honoris causa of the Carlos III University, Madrid; Visiting Professor at the Johns Hopkins University (Bologna Center), the Universities of St. Johns (New York), Georgetown, Paris II and Georgia (Athens) and the Institut universitaire international (Luxembourg); coordinator of the European Business Law Pallas Programme of the University of Nijmegen; member of the Consultative Committee of the Commission of the European Communities on Public Procurement; Under-Secretary of State for Trade and Industry during the Italian tenure of the Presidency of the Council; member of the Working Group of the European Community on the World Trade Organisation (WTO) and Director of the 1997 session of the research centre of The Hague Academy of International Law, devoted to the WTO; Judge at the Court of First Instance from 4 March 1998 to 3 May 2006; Advocate General at the Court of Justice since 4 May 2006.
Yves Bot
Yves Bot
Born 1947; graduate of the Faculty of Law, Rouen; Doctor of Laws (University of Paris II, Panthéon-Assas); Lecturer at the Faculty of Law, Le Mans; Deputy Public Prosecutor, then Senior Deputy Public Prosecutor, at the Public Prosecutor's Office, Le Mans (1974-82); Public Prosecutor at the Regional Court, Dieppe (1982-84); Deputy Public Prosecutor at the Regional Court, Strasbourg (1984-86); Public Prosecutor at the Regional Court, Bastia (1986-88); Advocate General at the Court of Appeal, Caen (1988-91); Public Prosecutor at the Regional Court, Le Mans (1991-93); Special Adviser to the Minister for Justice (1993-95); Public Prosecutor at the Regional Court, Nanterre (1995-2002); Public Prosecutor at the Regional Court, Paris (2002-04); Principal State Prosecutor at the Court of Appeal, Paris (2004-06); Advocate General at the Court of Justice since 7 October 2006.
Jean-Claude Bonichot
Jean-Claude Bonichot
Born 1955; graduated in law at the University of Metz, degree from the Institut d'études politiques, Paris, former student at the École nationale d'administration; rapporteur (1982-85), commissaire du gouvernement (1985-87 and 1992-99), Judge (1999-2000), President of the Sixth Sub-Division of the Judicial Division (2000-06), at the Council of State; Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice (1987-91); Director of the Private Office of the Minister for Labour, Employment and Vocational Training, then Director of the Private Office of the Minister of State for the Civil Service and Modernisation of Administration (1991-92); Head of the Legal Mission of the Council of State at the National Health Insurance Fund for Employed Persons (2001-06); Lecturer at the University of Metz (1988-2000), then at the University of Paris I, Panthéon-Sorbonne (from 2000); author of numerous publications on administrative law, Community law and European human rights law; Founder and chairman of the editorial committee of the Bulletin de jurisprudence de droit de l'urbanisme, co-founder and member of the editorial committee of the Bulletin juridique des collectivités locales; President of the Scientific Council of the Research Group on Institutions and Law governing Regional and Urban Planning and Habitats; Judge at the Court of Justice since 7 October 2006.
Thomas von Danwitz
Thomas von Danwitz
Born 1962; studied at Bonn, Geneva and Paris; State examination in law (1986 and 1992); Doctor of Laws (University of Bonn, 1988); International diploma in public administration (École nationale d'administration, 1990); teaching authorisation (University of Bonn, 1996); Professor of German public law and European law (1996-2003), Dean of the Faculty of Law of the Ruhr University, Bochum (2000-01); Professor of German public law and European law (University of Cologne, 2003-06); Director of the Institute of Public Law and Administrative Science (2006); Visiting professor at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy (2000), François Rabelais University, Tours (2001-06), and the University of Paris I, Panthéon-Sorbonne (2005-06); Doctor honoris causa of François Rabelais University, Tours (2010); Judge at the Court of Justice since 7 October 2006.
Alexander Arabadjiev
Alexander Arabadjiev
Born 1949; legal studies (St Kliment Ohridski University, Sofia); Judge at the District Court, Blagoevgrad (1975-83); Judge at the Regional Court, Blagoevgrad (1983-86); Judge at the Supreme Court (1986-91); Judge at the Constitutional Court (1991-2000); member of the European Commission of Human Rights (1997-99); member of the European Convention on the Future of Europe (2002-03); member of the National Assembly (2001-06); Observer at the European Parliament; Judge at the Court of Justice since 12 January 2007.
Camelia Toader
Camelia Toader
Born 1963; Degree in law (1986), doctorate in law (1997), University of Bucharest; Trainee judge at the Court of First Instance, Buftea (1986-88); Judge at the Court of First Instance, Sector 5, Bucharest (1988-92); called to the Bucharest Bar (1992); Lecturer (1992-2005), then, from 2005, professor in civil law and European contract law at the University of Bucharest; Doctoral studies and research at the Max Planck Institute for Private International Law, Hamburg (between 1992 and 2004); Head of the European Integration Unit at the Ministry of Justice (1997-99); Judge at the High Court of Cassation and Justice (1999-2007); Visiting professor at the Vienna University (2000 and 2011); taught Community law at the National Institute for Magistrates (2003 and 2005-06); Member of the editorial board of several legal journals; from 2010 associate member of the International Academy of Comparative Law and honorary researcher at the Centre for European Legal Studies of the Legal Research Institute of the Romanian Academy; Judge at the Court of Justice since 12 January 2007.
Marek Safjan

Marek Safjan
Born 1949; Doctor of Law (University of Warsaw, 1980); habilitated Doctor in Legal Science (University of Warsaw, 1990); Professor of Law (1998); Director of the Civil Law Institute of the University of Warsaw (1992-96); Vice-Rector of the University of Warsaw (1994-97); Secretary-General of the Polish Section of the Henri Capitant Association of Friends of French Legal Culture (1994-98); representative of Poland on the Bioethics Committee of the Council of Europe (1991-97); Judge (1997-98), then President (1998-2006), of the Constitutional Court; member (since 1994) and Vice-President (since 2010) of the International Academy of Comparative Law, member of the International Association of Law, Ethics and Science (since 1995), member of the Helsinki Committee in Poland; member of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences; Pro Merito Medal conferred by the Secretary-General of the Council of Europe (2007); author of a very large number of publications in the fields of civil law, medical law and European law; Doctor honoris causa of the European University Institute (2012); Judge at the Court of Justice since 7 October 2009.

Daniel Šváby

Daniel Šváby
Born 1951; Doctor of Laws (University of Bratislava); Judge at the District Court, Bratislava; Judge, Appeal Court, responsible for civil law cases, and Vice-President, Appeal Court, Bratislava; member of the Civil and Family Law Section at the Ministry of Justice Law Institute; acting Judge responsible for commercial law cases at the Supreme Court; member of the European Commission of Human Rights (Strasbourg); Judge at the Constitutional Court (2000-04); Judge at the Court of First Instance from 12 May 2004 to 6 October 2009; Judge at the Court of Justice since 7 October 2009.

Maria Berger

Maria Berger
Born 1956; studied law and economics (1975-79), Doctor of Law; Assistant Lecturer and Lecturer at the Institute of Public Law and Political Sciences of the University of Innsbruck (1979-84); Administrator at the Federal Ministry of Science and Research, ultimately Deputy Head of Unit (1984-88); official responsible for questions relating to the European Union at the Federal Chancellery (1988-89); Head of the European Integration Section of the Federal Chancellery (preparation for the Republic of Austria's accession to the European Union) (1989-92); Director at the EFTA Surveillance Authority, in Geneva and Brussels (1993-94); Vice-President of Danube University, Krems (1995-96); member of the European Parliament (November 1996 to January 2007 and December 2008 to July 2009) and member of the Committee on Legal Affairs; substitute member of the European Convention on the Future of Europe (February 2002 to July 2003); Councillor of the Municipality of Perg (September 1997 to September 2009); Federal Minister for Justice (January 2007 to December 2008); publications on various topics of European law; Honorary Professor of European law at the University of Vienna; Visiting Professor at the University of Saarbrücken; Honorary Senator of the University of Innsbruck; Judge at the Court of Justice since 7 October 2009.

Niilo Jääskinen

Niilo Jääskinen
Born 1958; law degree (1980), postgraduate law degree (1982), Doctorate (2008) at the University of Helsinki; Lecturer at the University of Helsinki (1980-86); Legal Secretary and acting Judge at the District Court, Rovaniemi (1983-84); Legal Adviser (1987-89), and subsequently Head of the European Law Section (1990-95), at the Ministry of Justice; Legal Adviser at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1989-90); Adviser, and Clerk for European Affairs, of the Grand Committee of the Finnish Parliament (1995-2000); acting Judge (July 2000 to December 2002), then Judge (January 2003 to September 2009), at the Supreme Administrative Court; responsible for legal and institutional questions during the negotiations for the accession of the Republic of Finland to the European Union; Advocate General at the Court of Justice since 7 October 2009.

Pedro Cruz Villalón

Pedro Cruz Villalón
Born 1946; law degree (1963-68) and awarded Doctorate (1975) at the University of Seville; postgraduate studies at the University of Freiburg im Breisgau (1969-71); Assistant Professor of Political Law at the University of Seville (1978-86); Professor of Constitutional Law at the University of Seville (1986-92); Legal Secretary at the Constitutional Court (1986-87); Judge at the Constitutional Court (1992-98); President of the Constitutional Court (1998-2001); Fellow of the Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin (2001-02); Professor of Constitutional Law at the Autonomous University of Madrid (2002-09); elected member of the Council of State (2004-09); author of numerous publications; Advocate General at the Court of Justice since 14 December 2009.

Alexandra Sacha Prechal

Alexandra (Sacha) Prechal
Born 1959; studied law (University of Groningen, 1977-83); Doctor of Laws (University of Amsterdam, 1995); Law Lecturer in the Law Faculty of the University of Maastricht (1983-87); Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice of the European Communities (1987-91); Lecturer at the Europa Institute of the Law Faculty of the University of Amsterdam (1991-95); Professor of European Law in the Law Faculty of the University of Tilburg (1995-2003); Professor of European Law in the Law Faculty of the University of Utrecht and board member of the Europa Institute of the University of Utrecht (from 2003); member of the editorial board of several national and international legal journals; author of numerous publications; member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences; Judge at the Court of Justice since 10 June 2010.

Egidijus Jarašiūnas

Egidijus Jarašiūnas
Born 1952; law degree at the University of Vilnius (1974-79); Doctor of Legal Science of the Law University of Lithuania (1999); member of the Lithuanian Bar (1979-90); member of the Supreme Council (Parliament) of the Republic of Lithuania (1990-92), then member of the Seimas (Parliament) of the Republic of Lithuania and member of the Seimas' State and Law Committee (1992-96); Judge at the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Lithuania (1996-2005), then Adviser to the President of the Lithuanian Constitutional Court (from 2006); Lecturer in the Constitutional Law Department of the Law Faculty of Mykolas Romeris University (1997-2000), then Associate Professor (2000-04) and Professor (from 2004) in that department, and finally Head of Department (2005-07); Dean of the Law Faculty of Mykolas Romeris University (2007-10); member of the Venice Commission (2006-10); signatory of the act of 11 March 1990 re-establishing Lithuania's independence; author of numerous legal publications; Judge at the Court of Justice since 6 October 2010.

Carl Gustav Fernlund

Carl Gustav Fernlund
Born 1950; graduated in law from the University of Lund (1975); Clerk at the Landskrona District Court (1976-78); Assistant Judge at an administrative court of appeal (1978-82); Deputy Judge at an administrative court of appeal (1982); Legal Adviser to the Swedish Parliament’s Standing Committee on the Constitution (1983-85); Legal Adviser at the Ministry of Finance (1985-90); Director of the Division for Personal Income Taxes at the Ministry of Finance (1990-96); Director of the Excise Duty Division at the Ministry of Finance (1996-98); Fiscal Counsellor at the Permanent Representation of Sweden to the European Union (1998-2000); Director-General for Legal Affairs in the Tax and Customs Department of the Ministry of Finance (2000-05); Judge at the Supreme Administrative Court (2005-09); President of the Administrative Court of Appeal, Gothenburg (2009-11); Judge at the Court of Justice since 6 October 2011.

José Luís da Cruz Vilaça

José Luís da Cruz Vilaça
Born 1944; degree in law and master's degree in political economy at the University of Coimbra; Doctor in International Economics (University of Paris I - Panthéon Sorbonne); compulsory military service performed in the Ministry for the Navy (Justice Department, 1969-72); Professor at the Catholic University and the New University of Lisbon; formerly Professor at the University of Coimbra and at Lusíada University, Lisbon (Director of the Institute for European Studies); Member of the Portuguese Government (1980-83): State Secretary for Home Affairs, State Secretary in the Prime Minister's Office and State Secretary for European Affairs; Deputy in the Portuguese Parliament, Vice-President of the Christian-Democrat Group; Advocate General at the Court of Justice (1986-88); President of the Court of First Instance of the European Communities (1989-95); lawyer at the Lisbon bar, specialising in European and competition law (1996-2012); member of the Working Party on the Future of the European Communities' Court System - ‘Due Group' (2000); Chairman of the Disciplinary Board of the European Commission (2003-07); President of the Portuguese Association of European Law (since 1999); Judge at the Court of Justice since 8 October 2012.

Melchior Wathelet

Melchior Wathelet
Born 1949; degrees in law and in economics (University of Liège); Master of Laws (Harvard University, United States); Doctor honoris causa (Université Paris-Dauphine); Professor of European Law at the Catholic University of Louvain and the University of Liège; Deputy (1977-95); State Secretary, Minister and Minister-President of the Walloon Region (1980-88); Deputy Prime Minister, Minister for Justice and for Small and Medium-Sized Businesses, the Liberal Professions and the Self-Employed (1988-92); Deputy Prime Minister, Minister for Justice and Economic Affairs (1992-95); Deputy Prime Minister, Minister for National Defence (1995); Mayor of Verviers (1995); Judge at the Court of Justice of the European Communities (1995-2003); legal adviser, then counsel (2004-12); Minister of State (2009-12); Advocate General at the Court of Justice since 8 October 2012.

Christopher Vajda

Christopher Vajda
Born 1955; law degree from Cambridge University; licence spéciale en droit européen at the Université libre de Bruxelles (grande distinction); called to the Bar of England and Wales by Gray's Inn (1979); Barrister (1979-2012); called to the Bar of Northern Ireland (1996); Queen's Counsel (1997); Bencher of Gray's Inn (2003); Recorder of the Crown Court (2003-12); Treasurer of the United Kingdom Association for European Law (2001-12); contributor to 3rd to 6th eds of European Community Law of Competition (Bellamy and Child); Judge at the Court of Justice since 8 October 2012.

Nils Wahl

Nils Wahl
Born 1961; Doctor of Laws, University of Stockholm (1995); Associate Professor (docent) and holder of the Jean Monnet Chair of European Law (1995); Professor of European Law, University of Stockholm (2001); Managing Director of an educational foundation (1993-2004); Chairman of the Nätverket för europarättslig forskning (Swedish Network for European Legal Research) (2001-06); member of the Rådet för konkurrensfrågor (Council for Competition Law Matters) (2001-06); Judge at the General Court from 7 October 2006 to 28 November 2012; Advocate General at the Court of Justice since 28 November 2012.

rodin

Sinisa Rodin
Born 1963; University of Zagreb, Faculty of Law, Ph.D. 1995; University of Michigan Law School, L.L.M. 1992; Harvard Law School, Fulbright Fellow and Visiting Scholar (2001-2002); tenure track and tenured professor at University of Zagreb, Faculty of Law since 1987, Jean Monnet Chair since 2006 and Jean Monnet Chair ad personam since 2011; Cornell Law School Visiting professor 2012; Member of the Croatian Constitutional Amendment Committee, President of the working group on EU membership (2009-2010); Member of the Croatian EU membership negotiating team (2006-2011); Author of numerous publications; Judge at the Court of Justice since 4 July 2013.

Biltgen

François Biltgen
Born 1958; master's degree in law (1981) and diploma of advanced studies (DEA) in Community law at the University of Law, Economics and Social Sciences, Paris II (1982); graduated from the Institut d'études politiques, Paris (1982); lawyer at the Luxembourg bar (1987-99); Deputy in the Chamber of Deputies (1994-99); Municipal Councillor of the town of Esch-sur-Alzette (1987-99); Deputy Mayor of Esch-sur-Alzette (1997-99); Alternate Member of the Luxembourg delegation to the Committee of the Regions of the European Union (1994-99); Minister for Labour and Employment, Minister for Religious Affairs, Minister for Relations with Parliament, Minister with responsibility for Communications (1999-2004); Minister for Labour and Employment, Minister for Religious Affairs, Minister for Culture, Higher Education and Research (2004-09); Minister for Justice, Minister for the Civil Service and Administrative Reform, Minister for Higher Education and Research, Minister for Communications and the Media, Minister for Religious Affairs (2009-13); Joint President of the Ministerial Conference of the Bologna Process in 2005 and 2009; Joint President of the Ministerial Conference of the European Space Agency (2012-13); Judge at the Court of Justice since 7 October 2013.

Verica Trstenjak

Küllike Jürimäe
Born 1962; law degree, University of Tartu (1981-86); Assistant to the  Public Prosecutor, Tallinn (1986-91); Diploma, Estonian School of Diplomacy (1991-92); Legal Adviser (1991-93) and General Counsel at the Chamber of Commerce and Industry (1992-93); Judge, Tallinn Court of Appeal (1993-2004); European Masters in Human Rights and Democratisation, Universities of Padua and Nottingham (2002-03); Judge at the General Court from 12 May 2004 to 23 October 2013; Judge at the Court of Justice since 23 October 2013.

Szpunar

Maciej Szpunar
Born 1971; degrees in law from the University of Silesia and the College of Europe, Bruges; Doctor of Law (2000); habilitated Doctor in Legal Science (2009); Professor of Law (2013); Visiting Scholar at Jesus College, Cambridge (1998), the University of Liège (1999) and the European University Institute, Florence (2003); lawyer (2001-08), member of the Committee for Private International Law of the Civil Law Codification Commission under the Ministry of Justice (2001-08); member of the Board of Trustees of the Academy of European Law, Trier (from 2008); member of the Research Group on Existing EC Private Law (‘Acquis Group') (from 2006); Undersecretary of State in the Office of the Committee for European Integration (2008-09), then in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2010-13); Vice-Chairman of the Scientific Board of the Institute of Justice; Agent of the Polish Government in a large number of cases before the European Union judicature; Head of the Polish delegation at the negotiations on the Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance in the Economic and Monetary Union; member of the editorial board of a number of legal journals; author of numerous publications in the fields of European law and private international law; Advocate General at the Court of Justice since 23 October 2013.

Alfredo Calot Escobar

Alfredo Calot Escobar
Born 1961; law degree at the University of Valencia (1979-84); Business Analyst at the Council of the Chambers of Commerce of the Autonomous Community of Valencia (1986); Lawyer-linguist at the Court of Justice (1986-90); Lawyer-reviser at the Court of Justice (1990-93); Administrator in the Press and Information Service of the Court of Justice (1993-95); Administrator in the Secretariat of the Institutional Affairs Committee of the European Parliament (1995-96); Aide to the Registrar of the Court of Justice (1996-99); Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice (1999-2000); Head of the Spanish Translation Division at the Court of Justice (2000-01); Director, then Director-General, of Translation at the Court of Justice (2001-10); Registrar of the Court of Justice since 7 October 2010.

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