Born 1954; law degree from the Robert Schuman University of Strasbourg; studied at the College of Europe; admitted to the Luxembourg Bar (1981); attaché de justice delegated to the office of the Public Attorney of Luxembourg (1983); Judge at the Luxembourg District Court (1984); Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice of the European Communities (1986-96); President of the Institut Universitaire International Luxembourg (IUIL); Judge at the General Court since 11 July 1996; President of the General Court since 17 September 2007.
Born 1948; Doctor of Laws and Master of Sociology and Economics of the University of Vienna; Lecturer and Senior Lecturer at the Vienna School of Economics, the Faculty of Law of the University of Vienna and various other universities; Honorary Professor at the Faculty of Law of the University of Vienna; Ministerialrat and Head of Department at the Federal Chancellery; member of the Steering Committee on Legal Cooperation of the Council of Europe (CDCJ); representative ad litem
before the Verfassungsgerichtshof (Constitutional Court) in proceedings for review of the constitutionality of federal laws; Coordinator responsible for the adaptation of Austrian federal law to Community law; Judge at the General Court since 18 January 1995.
Nicholas James Forwood
Born 1948; Cambridge University BA 1969, MA 1973 (Mechanical Sciences and Law); called to the English Bar in 1970, thereafter practising in London (1971-99) and also in Brussels (1979-99); called to the Irish Bar in 1981; appointed Queen's Counsel 1987; Bencher of the Middle Temple 1998; representative of the Bar of England and Wales at the Council of the Bars and Law Societies of the EU (CCBE) and Chairman of the CCBE's Permanent Delegation to the European Court of Justice (1995-99); governing board member of the World Trade Law Association and European Maritime Law Organisation (1993-2002); Judge at the General Court since 15 December 1999.
| |Maria Eugénia Martins de Nazaré Ribeiro
Born 1956; studied in Lisbon, Brussels and Strasbourg; member of the Bar in Portugal and Brussels; independent researcher at the Institut d'études européennes de l'Université libre de Bruxelles (Institute of European Studies, Free University of Brussels); Legal Secretary to the Portuguese Judge at the Court of Justice, Mr Moitinho de Almeida (1986-2000), then to the President of the Court of First Instance, Mr Vesterdorf (2000-03); Judge at the General Court since 31 March 2003.
Born 1959; law degree (University of Liege, 1981); Research Fellow (Fonds national de la recherche scientifique, 1985-89); Legal Adviser to the Chamber of Representatives (1981-90); Doctor of Laws (University of Strasbourg, 1990); Professor (Universities of Liege and Strasbourg; College of Europe; Institut royal supérieur de Défense; Université Montesquieu, Bordeaux; Collège Michel Servet of the Universities of Paris; Faculties of Notre-Dame de la Paix, Namur); Special Representative of the Minister for Foreign Affairs (1995-99); Director of European Studies of the Royal Institute of International Relations (1998-2003); assesseur at the Council of State (2001-03); consultant to the European Commission (1990-2003); member of the Internet Observatory (2001-03); Judge at the General Court since 7 October 2003.
Born 1946; Doctor of Laws of the University of Szeged (1971); Administrator at the Ministry of Labour (1971-74); Lecturer (1974-89), Dean of the Faculty of Law (1989-90), Vice-Rector (1992-97) at the University of Szeged; lawyer; member of the Presidium of the National Retirement Insurance Scheme; Vice-President of the European Institute of Social Security (1998-2002); member of the Scientific Council of the International Social Security Association; Judge at the Constitutional Court (1998-2004); Judge at the General Court since 12 May 2004.
Born 1947; Magister Juris, University of Warsaw (1965-69); Researcher (Assistant Lecturer, Associate Professor, Professor) at the Institute of Legal Sciences of the Polish Academy of Sciences (1969-2004); Assistant Researcher at the Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Patent, Copyright and Competition Law, Munich (award from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, 1985-86); lawyer (1992-2000); Judge at the Supreme Administrative Court (2001-04); Judge at the General Court since 12 May 2004.
Born 1949; Doctor of Laws, assistant in economic law (before 1989), Dr Sc., Professor of Business Law (since 1993) at the Faculty of Law, Charles University, Prague; member of the Executive of the Securities Commission (1999-2002); lawyer; member of the Legislative Council of the Government of the Czech Republic (1998-2004); Judge at the General Court since 12 May 2004.
Born 1954; Doctor of Laws (University of Moscow); Doctor habil. in Law (University of Warsaw); taught, at the University of Vilnius, international law (from 1981), human rights law (from 1991) and Community law (from 2000); Adviser to the Lithuanian Government on foreign relations (1991-93); member of the coordinating group of the delegation negotiating accession to the European Union; Director-General of the Government's European Law Department (1997-2004); Professor of European Law at the University of Vilnius, holder of the Jean Monnet Chair; President of the Lithuanian European Union Studies Association; Rapporteur of the parliamentary working group on constitutional reform relating to Lithuanian accession; member of the International Commission of Jurists (April 2003); Judge at the General Court since 12 May 2004.
Born 1962; law degree, University of Tartu (1981-86); Assistant to the Public Prosecutor, Tallinn (1986-91); Diploma, Estonian School of Diplomacy (1991-92); Legal Adviser (1991-93) and General Counsel at the Chamber of Commerce and Industry (1992-93); Judge, Tallinn Court of Appeal (1993-2004); European Masters in Human Rights and Democratisation, Universities of Padua and Nottingham (2002-03); Judge at the General Court since 12 May 2004.
Born 1963; Diploma in Law, University of Latvia (1986); Investigator at the Interior Ministry for the Kirov Region and the City of Riga (1986-89);Judge, Riga District Court (1990-94); lawyer (1994-98 and July 1999 to May 2000); Minister for Justice (November 1998 to July 1999 and May 2000 to October 2002); member of the International Court of Arbitration in The Hague (2001-04); Member of Parliament (2002-04); Judge at the General Court since 12 May 2004.
Born 1969; studies at the University of Athens (graduated in 1991); DEA (Diploma of Advanced Studies) in public law, University of Paris II (1992), and PhD in law, University of Aix-Marseille III (1995); admitted to the Cyprus Bar, member of the Nicosia Bar since 1993; Lecturer, University of Cyprus (1997-2002), Lecturer in Constitutional Law since September 2002; Researcher, European Public Law Centre (2001-02); Judge at the General Court since 12 May 2004.
Born 1965; law degree (1989); called to the Bar (1994); performed various tasks and functions in public authorities, principally in the Government Office for Legislation (Under-Secretary of State and Deputy Director, Head of Department for European and Comparative Law) and in the Office for European Affairs (Under-Secretary of State); member of the negotiating team for the association agreement (1994-96) and for accession to the European Union (1998-2003), responsible for legal affairs; lawyer; responsible for projects regarding adaptation to European legislation, and to achieve European integration, principally in the western Balkans; Head of Division at the Court of Justice of the European Communities (2004-06); Judge at the General Court since 7 October 2006.
Born 1950; studied law at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (1970-75); articled law clerk in the Nuremberg Higher Regional Court district (1975-78); Adviser at the Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs (1978-82); Counsellor at the Permanent Representation of the Federal Republic of Germany to the European Communities (1982); Adviser at the Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs, responsible for Community law and competition issues (1983-92); Head of the EU Law Section at the Federal Ministry of Justice (1992-2007); Head of the German delegation on the Council Working Party on the Court of Justice; Agent of the Federal Government in a large number of cases before the Court of Justice of the European Communities; Judge at the General Court since 17 September 2007.
Santiago Soldevila Fragoso
Born 1960; graduated in law from the Autonomous University of Barcelona (1983); Judge (1985); from 1992 Judge specialising in contentious administrative proceedings, assigned to the High Court of Justice of the Canary Islands at Santa Cruz de Tenerife (1992 and 1993), and to the National High Court (Madrid, May 1998 to August 2007), where he decided judicial proceedings in the field of tax (VAT), actions brought against general legislative provisions of the Ministry of the Economy and against its decisions on State aid or the government's financial liability, and actions brought against all agreements of the central economic regulators in the spheres of banking, the stock market, energy, insurance and competition; Legal Adviser at the Constitutional Court (1993-98); Judge at the General Court since 17 September 2007.
Born 1962; graduate of the Institut d'études politiques, Paris (1984); former student of the École nationale de la magistrature (National School for the Judiciary) (1986-88); Judge at the Regional Court, Marseilles (January 1988 to January 1990); Law Officer in the Directorate for Civil Affairs and the Legal Professions at the Ministry of Justice (January 1990 to June 1992); Deputy Section Head, then Section Head, in the Directorate-General for Competition, Consumption and the Combating of Fraud at the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Finance and Industry (June 1992 to September 1994); Technical Adviser to the Minister for Justice (September 1994 to May 1995); Judge at the Regional Court, Nîmes (May 1995 to May 1996); Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice in the Chambers of Advocate General Léger (May 1996 to December 2001); Auxiliary Judge at the Court of Cassation (December 2001 to August 2007); Judge at the General Court since 17 September 2007.
Sten Frimodt Nielsen
Born 1963; graduated in law from Copenhagen University (1988); civil servant in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1988-91); tutor in international and European law at Copenhagen University (1988-91); Embassy Secretary at the Permanent Mission of Denmark to the United Nations in New York (1991-94); civil servant in the Legal Service of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1994-95); external lecturer at Copenhagen University (1995); Adviser, then Senior Adviser, in the Prime Minister's Office (1995-98); Minister Counsellor at the Permanent Representation of Denmark to the European Union (1998-2001); Special Adviser for legal issues in the Prime Minister's Office (2001-02); Head of Department and Legal Counsel in the Prime Minister's Office (March 2002 to July 2004); Assistant Secretary of State and Legal Counsel in the Prime Minister's Office (August 2004 to August 2007); Judge at the General Court since 17 September 2007.
Born 1946; educated at Crescent College Limerick, Clongowes Wood College, University College Dublin (BA degree and Diploma in European Law) and the King's Inns; called to the Bar of Ireland in 1968; Barrister (1968-82); Senior Counsel (Inner Bar of Ireland, 1982-86); Judge of the Circuit Court (1986-97); Judge of the High Court of Ireland (1997-2008); Bencher of King's Inns; Irish Representative on the Consultative Council of European Judges (2000-08); Judge at the General Court since 15 September 2008.
Born 1952; graduate of the Helsinki School of Economics and of the Faculty of Law of the University of Helsinki; Legal Secretary at the Supreme Administrative Court of Finland; General Secretary to the Committee for Reform of Legal Protection in Public Administration; Principal Administrator at the Supreme Administrative Court; General Secretary to the Committee for Reform of Administrative Litigation, Counsellor in the Legislative Drafting Department of the Ministry of Justice; Assistant Registrar at the EFTA Court; Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice of the European Communities; Judge at the Supreme Administrative Court (1998-2005); member of the Asylum Appeal Board; Vice-Chairman of the Committee on the Development of the Finnish Courts; Judge at the Civil Service Tribunal from 6 October 2005 to 6 October 2009; Judge at the General Court since 7 October 2009.
Born 1952; Doctor of Law (Comenius University, Bratislava, 1979); company lawyer (1975-90); Registrar responsible for the commercial register at the City Court, Košice (1991); Judge at the City Court, Košice (January to October 1992); Judge and President of Chamber at the Regional Court, Košice (November 1992 to 2009); temporary Judge at the Supreme Court of the Slovak Republic, Commercial Law Division (October 2004 to September 2005); Head of the Commercial Law Division at the Regional Court, Košice (October 2005 to September 2009); external member of the Commercial and Business Law Department at Pavol Josef Šafárik University, Košice (1997-2009); external member of the teaching staff of the Judicial Academy (2005-09); Judge at the General Court since 7 October 2009.
Marc van der Woude
Born 1960; law degree (University of Groningen, 1983); studies at the College of Europe (1983-84); Assistant Lecturer at the College of Europe (1984-86); Lecturer at Leiden University (1986-87); Rapporteur in the Directorate-General for Competition of the Commission of the European Communities (1987-89); Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice of the European Communities (1989-92); Policy Coordinator in the Directorate-General for Competition of the Commission of the European Communities (1992-93); Member of the Legal Service of the Commission of the European Communities (1993-95); Member of the Brussels Bar from 1995; Professor at Erasmus University Rotterdam from 2000; author of numerous publications; Judge at the General Court since 13 September 2010.
Born 1957; graduated in law from the University of Athens (1980); awarded DEA (diploma of advanced studies) in public law by the University of Paris I, Panthéon-Sorbonne (1981); awarded diploma by the University Centre for Community and European Studies (University of Paris I) (1982); Junior Officer of the Council of State (1985-92); Junior Member of the Council of State (1992-2005); Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice of the European Communities (1994-96); Supplementary Member of the Superior Special Court of Greece (1998 and 1999); Member of the Council of State (2005); Member of the Special Court for Actions against Judges (2006); Member of the Supreme Council for Administrative Justice (2008); Inspector of Administrative Courts (2009-10); Judge at the General Court since 25 October 2010.
Born 1948; graduated in law from the University of Bucharest (1971); postgraduate studies in international labour law and European social law, University of Geneva (1973-74); Doctor of Laws of the University of Bucharest (1980); trainee assistant lecturer (1971-73), assistant lecturer with tenure (1974-85) and then lecturer in labour law at the University of Bucharest (1985-90); principal researcher at the National Research Institute for Labour and Social Protection (1990-91); Deputy Director-General (1991-92), then Director (1992-96) at the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection; senior lecturer (1997), then professor at the National School of Political Science and Public Administration, Bucharest (2000); State Secretary at the Ministry for European Integration (2001-05); Head of Department at the Legislative Council of Romania (1996-2001 and 2005-09); founding editor of the Romanian Review of European Law
; President of the Romanian Society for European Law (2009-10); Agent of the Romanian Government before the Courts of the European Union (2009-10); Judge at the General Court since 26 November 2010.
Born 1958; degree in law at the University of Sofia (1979-84); post-master’s degree in European law at the Institute for European Studies, Free University of Brussels (2008-09); specialisation in economic law and intellectual property law; Trainee judge at the Regional Court, Sofia (1985-86); Legal adviser (1986-88); Lawyer at the Sofia bar (1988-92); Director-General of the Services Office for the Diplomatic Corps at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1992-94); pursuit of the profession of lawyer in Sofia (1994-2011) and Brussels (2007-11); Arbitrator in Sofia for the resolution of commercial disputes; participation in the drafting of various legislative texts as legal adviser to the Bulgarian parliament; Judge at the General Court since 19 September 2011.
Born 1950; degree in law (Sapienza University of Rome, 1973), Diploma of Advanced European Studies at the College of Europe (Bruges, 1974-75); official of the Commission of the European Communities (‘International Affairs' Directorate of the Directorate-General for Agriculture, 1975-76); member of the Legal Service of the Commission of the European Communities (1976-91 and 1994-95); Representative of the Legal Service of the Commission of the European Communities in Luxembourg (1990-91); Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice of the European Communities in the chambers of the judge Mr G.F. Mancini (1991-94); Legal Adviser to members of the Commission of the European Communities, Mr M. Monti (1995-97) and Mr F. Bolkestein (2000-02); Director of the ‘Procurement Policy' Directorate (2002-03), the ‘Services, Intellectual and Industrial Property, Media and Data Protection' Directorate (2003-05) and the ‘Services' Directorate (2005-11) at the Directorate-General for the Internal Market of the Commission of the European Communities; Principal Legal Adviser and Director of the ‘Justice, Freedom and Security, Private Law and Criminal Law' Team at the Legal Service of the European Commission (2011-12); Judge at the General Court since 17 September 2012.
Born 1961; Doctor of Laws, University of Malta; Master of Laws in European Legal Studies, University of Exeter; Ph.D. in Competition Law, University of London; Legal Officer at the Ministry of Justice (1987-1990); Senior Legal Officer at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1990-1994); Member of the Copyright Board (1994-2005); Legal Reviser at the Ministry of Justice and Local Government (2001-2002); Board Member of the Malta Resources Authority (2001-2009); Legal Consultant in the field of EU law from 1994, Legal Advisor to the Ministry of Finance, the Economy and Investment on consumer and competition law (2000-2010), Legal Advisor to the Office of the Prime Minister on consumer affairs and competition (2010-2011), Legal Consultant with the Malta Competition and Consumer Affairs Authority (2012); Lecturer (1994-2001), Senior Lecturer (2001-2006), subsequently Associate Professor (since 2007) and holder of the Jean Monnet Chair in EU Law (since 2009) at the University of Malta; author of numerous publications in the fields of competition law, consumer law, intellectual property and EU law; co-founder and vice-president of the Maltese Association for European Law; judge at the General Court since 8 October 2012.
Born 1949; Uppsala University, B.A. in economics 1974, LLM 1977; Administrative Officer at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1977); member of the Swedish Bar Association (from 1983); member of the competition law working group of ICC (International Chamber of Commerce) Sweden; Lecturer in competition law at Lund University and Stockholm University; author of numerous publications; Judge at the General Court since 18 March 2013.
Born 1968; law studies (Université Panthéon-Assas, Paris); management studies (Université Paris Dauphine); College of Europe (1992); entrance examination for the Centre régional de formation à la profession d'avocat (regional training centre for the bar), Paris; certificate of admission to the Brussels Bar; practice as a lawyer in Brussels; successful candidate in an open competition for the Commission of the European Communities; Legal Secretary at the Court of First Instance (Chambers of the Presidents Mr Saggio (1996-98) and Mr Vesterdorf (1998-2002)); Head of Chambers of the President of the Court of First Instance (2003-05); Registrar of the General Court since 6 October 2005.