Judgment of the Court (Grand Chamber) of 17 February 2009.

Meki Elgafaji and Noor Elgafaji v Staatssecretaris van Justitie.

Reference for a preliminary ruling: Raad van State - Netherlands.

Directive 2004/83/EC - Minimum standards for determining who qualifies for refugee status or for subsidiary protection status - Person eligible for subsidiary protection - Article 2(e) - Real risk of suffering serious harm - Article 15(c) - Serious and individual threat to a civilian’s life or person by reason of indiscriminate violence in situations of armed conflict - Proof .

Case C-465/07.


Top of the page Documents in the Case
Document Date Name of the parties Subject-matter Curia EUR-Lex
Judgment (OJ)
18/04/2009 Elgafaji
View pdf documents
Judgment (Summary)
ECLI:EU:C:2009:94
17/02/2009 Elgafaji
Judgment
ECLI:EU:C:2009:94
17/02/2009 Elgafaji
EUR-Lex text EUR-Lex bilingual text
Opinion
ECLI:EU:C:2008:479
09/09/2008 Elgafaji
EUR-Lex text EUR-Lex bilingual text
Application (OJ)
12/01/2008 Elgafaji
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Top of the page Legal analysis of the decision or of the case

Reports of Cases

2009 I-00921

Subject-matter

Reference for a preliminary ruling – Raad van State – Interpretation of Articles 2(e) and 15(c) of Council Directive 2004/83/EC of 29 April 2004 on minimum standards for the qualification and status of third country nationals or stateless persons as refugees or as persons who otherwise need international protection and the content of the protection granted – Minimum standards in relation to the conditions governing the granting of refugee status – Level of protection equivalent to that of Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights or, in the event of non-equivalence, the criteria to be applied for the purpose of determining whether there are serious and individual threats by reason of indiscriminate violence

Systematic classification scheme

1.
A The Community legal order
  A-01 Sources of Community law
    A-01.02 General principles of law
      A-01.02.01 Fundamental rights
        A-01.02.01.00 General
B European Community (EEC/EC)
  B-04 Free movement of persons and services
    B-04.07 Visas, asylum, immigration, etc.
      B-04.07.02 Asylum policy
B European Community (EEC/EC)
  B-04 Free movement of persons and services
    B-04.07 Visas, asylum, immigration, etc.
      B-04.07.02 Asylum policy


Citations of case-law or legislation

References in grounds of judgment

  • EC Treaty (Amsterdam), Article 249 -L3 : paragraph 42
  • Directive 2004/83 -A01 : paragraph 8
  • Directive 2004/83 -A02LC : paragraph 9
  • Directive 2004/83 -A02LE : paragraphs 1, 9, 26, 29 - 31, 43, 44
  • Directive 2004/83 -A02LG : paragraph 9
  • Directive 2004/83 -A04P1 : paragraph 10
  • Directive 2004/83 -A04P3 : paragraphs 10, 40
  • Directive 2004/83 -A04P4 : paragraphs 10, 40
  • Directive 2004/83 -A08P1 : paragraphs 11, 40
  • Directive 2004/83 -A15 : paragraphs 12, 31, 38
  • Directive 2004/83 -A15LA : paragraphs 32, 38
  • Directive 2004/83 -A15LB : paragraphs 28, 32, 38
  • Directive 2004/83 -A15LC : paragraphs 1, 26 - 30, 33, 35 - 38, 41, 43, 44
  • Directive 2004/83 -A18 : paragraph 13
  • Directive 2004/83 -C1 : paragraph 4
  • Directive 2004/83 -C6 : paragraph 5
  • Directive 2004/83 -C10 : paragraph 6
  • Directive 2004/83 -C24 : paragraph 7
  • Directive 2004/83 -C25 : paragraph 7
  • Directive 2004/83 -C26 : paragraphs 7, 36
  • Court of Justice - Judgment C -106/89 : paragraph 42
  • Court of Justice - Judgment C -188/07 : paragraph 42

Operative part

  • Interprets : Directive 2004/83 -A02LE
  • Interprets : Directive 2004/83 -A15LC

Opinion

  • EU Treaty (Amsterdam), Article 6 -P2 : point 21
  • TEU, Article 6 -P1 : point 23
  • TEU, Article 6 -P2 : point 23
  • Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU (2000) -A18 : point 23
  • Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU (2000) -A52P3 : point 23
  • Directive 2004/83 -A02LE : point 14
  • Directive 2004/83 -A15 : points 1, 18, 27
  • Directive 2004/83 -A15LA : points 27, 32, 34, 36, 41, 42
  • Directive 2004/83 -A15LB : points 27, 32, 34, 36, 41, 42
  • Directive 2004/83 -A15LC : points 14 - 16, 19, 26 - 28, 30 - 34, 36, 40 - 42
  • Court of Justice - Opinion C -305/05 : point 21


Dates

Date of the lodging of the application initiating proceedings

  • 17/10/2007

Date of the Opinion

  • 09/09/2008

Date of the hearing

Information not available

Date of delivery

17/02/2009


References

Publication in the Official Journal

Application: OJ C 8 from 12.01.2008, p.5

Judgment: OJ C 90 from 18.04.2009, p.4

Name of the parties

Elgafaji

Notes on Academic Writings

  1. Kuq-Adrovic, Ermina: Revue du droit des étrangers 2008 p.511-513 (FR)
  2. Mok, M.R.: Nederlandse jurisprudentie ; Uitspraken in burgerlijke en strafzaken 2009 nº 182 (NL)
  3. Broussy, Emmanuelle ; Donnat, Francis ; Lambert, Christian: Chronique de jurisprudence communautaire. Réfugiés, menace individuelle et conflit armé, L'actualité juridique ; droit administratif 2009 p.980-981 (FR)
  4. Kauff-Gazin, Fabienne: Protection communautaire subsidiaire accordée aux réfugiés, Europe 2009 Avril Comm. nº 155 p.17-18 (FR)
  5. Bank, Roland: Das Elgafaji-Urteil des EuGH und seine Bedeutung für den Schutz von Personen, die vor bewaffneten Konflikten fliehen, Neue Zeitschrift für Verwaltungsrecht 2009 p.695-699 (DE)
  6. Komárek, J.: Přezkum reálnosti hrozby vážné újmy žadatele o mezinárodní ochranu, Soudní rozhledy : mesícník ceské, zahranicní a evropské judikatury : nová soudní rozhodnutí vydávaná redakcí casopisu Právní rozhledy ve spoluprác jednotlivymi soudci 2009 p.196-198 (CS)
  7. Kosař, D.: Soudní rozhledy : mesícník ceské, zahranicní a evropské judikatury : nová soudní rozhodnutí vydávaná redakcí casopisu Právní rozhledy ve spoluprác jednotlivymi soudci 2009 p.232-237 (CS)
  8. X: Jurisprudentie bestuursrecht 2009 nº 90 (NL)
  9. Dautricourt, C.: La jurisprudence de la Cour de justice et du Tribunal de première instance. Chronique des arrêts. Arrêt "Elgafaji", Revue du droit de l'Union européenne 2009 nº 2 p.338-346 (FR)
  10. Gorter, Hesther: La protezione sussidiaria dopo la sentenza C-465/07 della Corte di giustizia delle Comunità europee, Diritto, immigrazione e cittadinanza 2009 p.98-111 (IT)
  11. Anthimos, A.: Armenopoulos 2009 p.1432 (EL)
  12. Zorzi Giustiniani, Flavia: Protezione sussidiaria ed esigenze di protezione in situazioni di violenza indiscriminata. La Corte di giustizia si pronuncia sulla c.d. direttiva qualifiche, Studi sull'integrazione europea 2009 nº 3 p.779-802 (IT)
  13. Stamelos, Charalampos: Anagnorisi tou kathestotos prosfyga i epikourikis prostasias se kratos melos, Evropaion Politeia 2009 p.477-479 (EL)
  14. Cortés Martín, José Manuel: Jurisprudencia del TJCE, Enero-Abril 2009, Revista de Derecho Comunitario Europeo 2009 p.665-726 (ES)
  15. Maier, Gernot: Kein zwingender Nachweis der spezifischen individuellen Betroffenheit erforderlich, Fremden- und asylrechtliche Blätter - FABL 2009 n° 2 p.27-29 (DE)
  16. Acosta Sánchez, Miguel Angel ; Njiki, Michel Remi: TJCE - Sentencia de 17.02.2009, Elgafaji c. Staatssecretaris van Justitie - C-465/07 - Política europea de asilo y refugio - Artículo 3 CEDH - Protección subsidiaria - Amenazas graves e individuales contra la vida o la integridad física de un civil motivadas por una violencia indiscriminada en situaciones de conflicto armado - Prueba., Revista de Derecho Comunitario Europeo 2010 p.239-255 (ES)
  17. Bank, Roland: Subsidiärer Schutz von Personen, die vor bewaffneten Konflikten fliehen - Das Elgafaji-Urteil des EuGH und seine Rezeption in der Praxis, Hohenheimer Tage zum Ausländerrecht 2011 (Ed. Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden) 2012 p.247-258 (DE)
  18. D'Huart, Pierre: Le concept de conflit armé interne ou international de l’article 15, point c, de la directive. 2004/83/CE : une référence au droit international humanitaire ?, Revue du droit des étrangers 2012 p.238-245 (FR)



Procedural Analysis Information

Source of the question referred for a preliminary ruling

Raad van State - Netherlands

Subject-matter

  • area of freedom, security and justice
  • - asylum policy
  • Fundamental rights

Procedure and result

  • Reference for a preliminary ruling

Formation of the Court

grande chambre (Cour)

Judge-Rapporteur

Bay Larsen

Advocate General

Poiares Maduro

Language(s) of the Case

  • Dutch

Language(s) of the Opinion

  • French