Judgment of the Court of 28 March 2000.

Dieter Krombach v André Bamberski.

Reference for a preliminary ruling: Bundesgerichtshof - Germany.

Brussels Convention - Enforcement of judgments - Public policy.

Case C-7/98.


Top of the page Documents in the Case
Document Date Name of the parties Subject-matter Curia EUR-Lex
Judgment
ECLI:EU:C:2000:164
28/03/2000 Krombach
EUR-Lex text EUR-Lex bilingual text
Judgment (Summary)
ECLI:EU:C:2000:164
28/03/2000 Krombach
Opinion
ECLI:EU:C:1999:446
23/09/1999 Krombach
EUR-Lex text EUR-Lex bilingual text
Top of the page Legal analysis of the decision or of the case

Reports of Cases

2000 I-01935

Subject-matter

Preliminary ruling ─ Bundesgerichtshof ─ Interpretation of Article 27(1) of the Brussels Convention (exclusion of the recognition of a judgment contrary to public policy in the State in which recognition is sought) ─ Criminal court having jurisdiction solely because of the nationality and domicile of the victim, and having jurisdiction for the civil action by virtue of Article 5(4) of the Convention ─ Judgment in absentia despite the presence of a lawyer instructed for the civil action ─ Procedure designed so as to require a foreign defendant to appear before a criminal court which has jurisdiction solely because of the nationality and the domicile of the victim (Article 6(1) of the European Convention on Human Rights, "fair trial")

Systematic classification scheme

1.
E Convention on jurisdiction and the enforcement of judgments
  E-27 Grounds for refusal of recognition
    E-27.01 Proviso as to public policy
E Convention on jurisdiction and the enforcement of judgments
  E-27 Grounds for refusal of recognition
    E-27.01 Proviso as to public policy
E Convention on jurisdiction and the enforcement of judgments
  E-27 Grounds for refusal of recognition
    E-27.01 Proviso as to public policy
E Convention on jurisdiction and the enforcement of judgments
  E-27 Grounds for refusal of recognition
    E-27.01 Proviso as to public policy


Citations of case-law or legislation

References in grounds of judgment

  • EU Treaty (Maastricht), Article F -P2 : paragraph 27
  • EC Treaty (Maastricht), Article 220 : paragraphs 20, 24
  • Brussels Convention 1968 -A01L1 : paragraphs 3, 30
  • Brussels Convention 1968 -A02L1 : paragraphs 4, 17
  • Brussels Convention 1968 -A03L2 : paragraphs 4, 17
  • Brussels Convention 1968 -A05 : paragraph 5
  • Brussels Convention 1968 -A27 : paragraph 21
  • Brussels Convention 1968 -A27PT1 : paragraphs 1, 8, 17, 18, 21, 22, 29, 34, 35, 37, 41, 44, 45
  • Brussels Convention 1968 -A28L1 : paragraph 31
  • Brussels Convention 1968 -A28L3 : paragraphs 9, 33
  • Brussels Convention 1968 -A28L3PT1 : paragraph 31
  • Brussels Convention 1968 -A28L3PT2 : paragraph 31
  • Brussels Convention 1968 -A29 : paragraphs 10, 36
  • Brussels Convention 1968 -A31L1 : paragraphs 6, 17
  • Brussels Convention 1968 -A34L2 : paragraph 7
  • Brussels Convention 1968 -A34L3 : paragraphs 10, 36
  • Brussels Convention 1968 -A65 : paragraph 11
  • Brussels Convention 1968 - annexed protocol -A02 : paragraphs 11, 17, 44
  • Brussels Convention - Accession of Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom (1978) : paragraph 1
  • Brussels Convention - Accession of Greece (1982) : paragraph 1
  • Court of Justice - Judgment C -157/80 -N06 : paragraph 41
  • Court of Justice - Judgment C -157/80 -N12 : paragraph 41
  • Court of Justice - Judgment C -49/84 -N10 : paragraph 43
  • Court of Justice - Judgment C -222/84 -N18 : paragraph 25
  • Court of Justice - Judgment C -145/86 -N21 : paragraph 21
  • Court of Justice - Judgment C -172/91 -N16 : paragraph 30
  • Court of Justice - Judgment C -135/92 -N39 : paragraph 42
  • Court of Justice - Judgment C -398/92 -N12 : paragraph 24
  • Court of Justice - Judgment C -414/92 -N20 : paragraphs 19, 21
  • Court of Justice - Judgment C -432/93 -N39 : paragraph 20
  • Court of Justice - Opinion 2/94 -N33 : paragraph 25
  • Court of Justice - Judgment C -32/95 -N21 : paragraph 42
  • Court of Justice - Judgment C -78/95 -N23 : paragraph 21
  • Court of Justice - Judgment C -185/95 -N20 : paragraph 26
  • Court of Justice - Judgment C -185/95 -N21 : paragraph 26
  • Court of Justice - Judgment C -267/97 -N25 : paragraph 19
  • Court of Justice - Judgment C -174/98 -N17 : paragraph 26

Operative part

  • Interprets : Brussels Convention 1968 -A27PT1

Opinion

  • Brussels Convention 1968 -A01PT1 : point 27
  • Brussels Convention 1968 -A02 : points 14, 16, 31
  • Brussels Convention 1968 -A03 : point 16
  • Brussels Convention 1968 -A03L2 : points 16, 17
  • Brussels Convention 1968 -A03PT2 : point 14
  • Brussels Convention 1968 -A05PT4 : point 18
  • Brussels Convention 1968 -A08 : point 24
  • Brussels Convention 1968 -A27 : points 22, 27
  • Brussels Convention 1968 -A27PT1 : points 12, 14, 19, 20, 23, 24 - 26, 28, 31 - 34
  • Brussels Convention 1968 -A27PT2 : point 27
  • Brussels Convention 1968 -A27PT3 : point 27
  • Brussels Convention 1968 -A27PT4 : point 27
  • Brussels Convention 1968 -A28 : points 14 - 17, 19
  • Brussels Convention 1968 -A28L1 : point 16
  • Brussels Convention 1968 -A28L3 : point 16
  • Brussels Convention 1968 -A29 : point 26
  • Brussels Convention 1968 -A34 : points 22, 32, 33
  • Brussels Convention 1968 -A34L2 : points 20, 34
  • Brussels Convention 1968 -A59 : point 14
  • Brussels Convention 1968 - annexed protocol -A02 : points 20, 22, 29 - 31
  • Court of Justice - Judgment C -157/80 -N12 : point 30
  • Court of Justice - Judgment C -145/86 -N21 : point 25
  • Court of Justice - Opinion C -145/86 -N16 : point 24
  • Court of Justice - Opinion C -38/98 -N57 : point 24


Dates

Date of the lodging of the application initiating proceedings

  • 14/01/1997

Date of the Opinion

  • 23/09/1999

Date of the hearing

Information not available

Date of delivery

28/03/2000


References

Publication in the Official Journal

Application: OJ C 72 from 07.03.1998, p.11

Judgment: OJ C 163 from 10.06.2000, p.1

Name of the parties

Krombach

Notes on Academic Writings

  1. Geimer, Reinhold: Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftsrecht 2000 p.863-864 (DE)
  2. Idot, Laurence: Europe 2000 Mai Comm. nº 157 p.22 (FR)
  3. Hau, Wolfgang: Entscheidungen zum Wirtschaftsrecht 2000 p.441-442 (DE)
  4. Von Bar, Christian: Juristenzeitung 2000 p.725-727 (DE)
  5. Niboyet, Marie-Laure: La confirmation par la Cour de justice des Communautés européennes de l'intégration des droits fondamentaux au système de la Convention de Bruxelles du 27 septembre 1968. A propos de la condamnation de la procédure française de contumace au nom du droit au procès équitable : CJCE, 28 mars 2000, Gazette du Palais 2000 III Doct. p.1731-1734 (FR)
  6. Piekenbrock, Andreas: Kann der Ausschluß des ordre public in Art. 28 Abs. 3 EuGVÜ ausnahmslos gelten?, Praxis des internationalen Privat- und Verfahrensrechts 2000 p.364-366 (DE)
  7. Theodorou, Elina: Diki 2000 p.686-696 (EL)
  8. Muir Watt, Horatia: Revue critique de droit international privé 2000 p.489-497 (FR)
  9. Borrás Rodríguez, Alegría: Jurisprudencia del Tribunal de Justicia de las Comunidades Europeas, Revista Jurídica de Catalunya 2000 p.1197-1202 (ES)
  10. Gómez Jené, Miguel: Convenio arbitral y orden público europeo (a propósito de la Sentencia del TJCE de 28 de marzo de 2000 en el asunto Krombach c. Bamberski), Gaceta Jurídica de la U.E. y de la Competencia 2000 nº 209 p.86-92 (ES)
  11. Grundel, Jörg: Der einheitliche Grundrechtsraum Europa und seine Grenzen: Zur EMRK-konformen Interpretation des Ordre-public-Vorbehalts des EuGVÜ durch den EuGH, Europäisches Wirtschafts- & Steuerrecht - EWS 2000 p.442-448 (DE)
  12. Giannopoulos, Panagiotis: Elliniki Epitheorisi Evropaïkou Dikaiou 2000 p.461-467 (EL)
  13. Raynard, Jacques: De l'influence de la Convention européenne des droits de l'homme sur l'ordre public... international: de l'extra territorialité de la Convention européenne des droits de l'homme. (CJCE 28 mars 2000, Krombach c/ Bamberski; Civ. 1re 16 mars 1999, Pordéa), Revue trimestrielle de droit civil 2000 p.944-947 (FR)
  14. González González, Rossana: Límites a la construcción de un "orden público europeo" en materia de derechos fundamentales. (A propósito de la sentencia del TJCE Krombach c. Bamberski, de 28 de marzo de 2000), Revista de Derecho Comunitario Europeo 2000 p.593-617 (ES)
  15. Mazza, Mauro: L'ordine pubblico come limite (al riconoscimento ed) all'esecuzione delle sentenze nello spazio giudiziario europeo (Convenzione di Bruxelles del 27 settembre 1968), Diritto pubblico comparato ed europeo 2000 p.1325-1329 (IT)
  16. Anthimos, Apostolos: Dimosia taxi kai Symvasi ton Vryxellon. [Protes antidraseis stin apofasi C-7/98 (Krombach / Bamberski) tou DEvrK], Armenopoulos 2000 p.1301-1305 (EL)
  17. Gardeñes Santiago, Miguel: Jurisprudencia española y comunitaria de Derecho Internacional Privado, Revista española de Derecho Internacional 2000 p.193-197 (ES)
  18. Von Sachsen Gessaphe, Karl August: Zeitschrift für Zivilprozeß International 2000 Bd. 5 p.225-240 (DE)
  19. Donzallaz, Yves: Le renouveau de l'ordre public dans la CB/CL au regard des ACJCE Krombach et Renault et de la révision de ces traités, Aktuelle juristische Praxis - AJP 2001 p.160-179 (FR)
  20. Biagioni, Giacomo: L'art. 6 della Convenzione europea dei Diritti dell'Uomo e l'ordine pubblico processuale nel sistema della Convenzione di Bruxelles, Rivista di diritto internazionale 2001 p.723-737 (IT)
  21. Massias, Florence: Chronique internationale. Droits de l'homme, Revue de science criminelle et de droit pénal comparé 2001 p.429-444 (FR)
  22. Klesta Dosi, Laurence: La nuova giurisprudenza civile commentata 2001 II p.208-210 (IT)
  23. Nourissat, Cyril: Nouvelles précisions sur l'ordre public international, La Semaine juridique - édition générale 2001 II 10607 (FR)
  24. Huet, André: Chronique de jurisprudence de Tribunal et de la Cour de justice des Communautés européennes, Journal du droit international 2001 p.691-696 (FR)
  25. Matscher, Franz: Der verfahrensrechtliche ordre public im Spannungsfeld von EMRK und Gemeinschaftsrecht, Praxis des internationalen Privat- und Verfahrensrechts 2001 p.428-436 (DE)
  26. Van Hoek, Aukje A.H.: Common Market Law Review 2001 p.1011-1027 (EN)
  27. Jayme, Erik: Nationaler Ordre public und europäische Integration - Betrachtungen zum Krombach-Urteil des EuGH, Vorlesungen und Vorträge / Ludwig-Boltzmann-Institut für Europarecht - Heft 6 2001 32 p. (DE)
  28. Zilinsky, M.: Ondernemingsrecht 2001 p.531-532 (NL)
  29. Bernardeau, Ludovic: Revue des affaires européennes 2002 p.274-283 (FR)
  30. Nascimbene, Bruno: Riconoscimento di sentenza straniera e "ordine pubblico europeo", Rivista di diritto internazionale privato e processuale 2002 p.659-664 (IT)
  31. Jayme, Erik: Nationaler ordre public und europäische Integration - Betrachtungen zum Krombach-Urteil des EuGH, Internationales Privatrecht und Völkerrecht 2003 p.122-135 (DE)
  32. Lowenfeld, Andreas F.: Jurisdiction, Enforcement, Public Policy and Res Judicata: The Krombach Case, Intercontinental Cooperation Through Private International Law : Essays in Memory of Peter E. Nygh (Ed. T.M.C. Asser Press - The Hague) 2004 p.229-248 (EN)
  33. Wilderspin, Michael: Revue européenne de droit de la consommation 2004 p.75-76 (FR)
  34. Volken, Paul: Schweizerische Zeitschrift für internationales und europäisches Recht 2004 p.659 (DE)
  35. Brodec, Jan: Pojem "evropský veřejný pořádek" v judikatuře Evropského soudního dvora a Ústavního soudu ČR, Jurisprudence : specialista na komentování judikatury 2006 p.7-13 (CS)
  36. D´Alessandro, Elena: Riconoscimento di sentenza straniera con motivazione omessa o insufficiente, Il Corriere giuridico 2007 p.126-131 (IT)
  37. Costaș, Cosmin Flavius: Jurisprudenţa fiscalǎ a Curții de Justiție Europene, Curierul fiscal 2008 nº 3 p.44-48 (RO)
  38. Van Hoek, Aukje A.H.: Krombach-Bamberski of zoeken naar rechtvaardigheid op zijn Europees, Ars Aequi 2010 p.384-386 (NL)
  39. Ivanc, Tjaša: Novi režim načrtovanja dedovanja s čezmejnim elementom - pomen evropske Uredbe o dedovanju, Podjetje in delo 2016 nº 6-7 p.1365-1382 (SL)
  40. Pailler, Ludovic: La portée de l'obligation de reconnaître une décision relative à la garde d'un enfant émanant de la juridiction de l'État membre dans lequel l'enfant a été déplacé en application du réglement n° 2201/2003 "Bruxelles II bis", Journal du droit international 2016 N°2 p.593-603 (FR)



Procedural Analysis Information

Source of the question referred for a preliminary ruling

Bundesgerichtshof - Germany

Subject-matter

  • Brussels Convention of 27 September 1968
  • - Brussels Convention of 27 September 1968 - Jurisdiction

Procedure and result

  • Reference for a preliminary ruling

Formation of the Court

Cour plénière (Cour)

Judge-Rapporteur

Jann

Advocate General

Saggio

Language(s) of the Case

  • German

Language(s) of the Opinion

  • Italian