Judgment of the Court (Grand Chamber), 5 September 2012

Bundesrepublik Deutschland v Y and Z

References for a preliminary ruling from the Bundesverwaltungsgericht

Directive 2004/83/EC — Minimum standards for determining who qualifies for refugee status or for subsidiary protection status — Article (2)(c) — Classification as a ‘refugee’ — Article 9(1) — Definition of ‘acts of persecution’ — Article 10(1)(b) — Religion as ground for persecution — Connection between the reasons for persecution and the acts of persecution — Pakistani nationals who are members of the Ahmadiyya religious community — Acts by the Pakistani authorities designed to prohibit the manifestation of a person’s religion in public — Acts sufficiently serious for the person concerned to have a well-founded fear of being persecuted on account of his religion — Individual assessment of the facts and circumstances — Article 4

Joined Cases C‑71/11 and C‑99/11


Top of the page Documents in the Case
Document Date Name of the parties Subject-matter Curia EUR-Lex
Judgment (OJ)
12/10/2012 Y and Z
View pdf documents
Judgment
ECLI:EU:C:2012:518
05/09/2012 Y and Z
EUR-Lex text EUR-Lex bilingual text
Judgment (Summary)
ECLI:EU:C:2012:518
05/09/2012 Y and Z
Opinion
ECLI:EU:C:2012:224
19/04/2012 Y and Z
EUR-Lex text EUR-Lex bilingual text
Application (OJ)
30/04/2011 Y and Z
View pdf documents
Order
ECLI:EU:C:2011:877
24/03/2011 Y and Z
Top of the page Legal analysis of the decision or of the case

Reports of Cases

published in the electronic Reports of Cases (Court Reports - general)

Subject-matter

Reference for a preliminary ruling – Bundesverwaltungsgericht – Interpretation of Articles 2(c) and 9(1)(a) of Council Directive 2004/83/EC of 29 April 2004 on minimum standards for the qualification and status of third country nationals or stateless persons as refuges or as persons who otherwise need international protection and the content of the protection granted (OJ 2004 L 304, p.12) – Conditions to be considered as a refugee – Sufficiently severe nature of an act of persecution – Actions by the Pakistani authorities seeking to restrict the activities of the Ahmadiyya religious community

Systematic classification scheme

1.
1 The legal order of the European Union
  1.04 Fundamental rights
    1.04.03 The fundamental rights
      1.04.03.10 Freedom of thought, conscience and religion
1 The legal order of the European Union
  1.04 Fundamental rights
    1.04.04 Effect of other instruments concerning the protection of fundamental rights (excluding ECHR)
4 Internal policy of the European Union
  4.06 Area of freedom, security and justice
    4.06.01 Border checks, asylum and immigration
      4.06.01.03 Asylum policy
4 Internal policy of the European Union
  4.06 Area of freedom, security and justice
    4.06.01 Border checks, asylum and immigration
      4.06.01.03 Asylum policy


Citations of case-law or legislation

References in grounds of judgment

  • Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU (2007), Article 10 -P1 : paragraphs 7, 49, 56, 58, 60, 61, 66, 72
  • Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU (2007), Article 52 -P1 : paragraph 60
  • TEU, Article 6 -P1 : paragraph 10
  • TFEU, Article 78 -P1 : paragraph 48
  • Directive 2004/83 -A01 : paragraph 12
  • Directive 2004/83 -A02LA : paragraph 13
  • Directive 2004/83 -A02LC : paragraphs 1, 13, 45, 50, 73, 76, 80
  • Directive 2004/83 -A02LD : paragraphs 13, 58
  • Directive 2004/83 -A03 : paragraph 13
  • Directive 2004/83 -A04 : paragraph 77
  • Directive 2004/83 -A04P3 : paragraphs 15, 68
  • Directive 2004/83 -A04P4 : paragraphs 16, 75
  • Directive 2004/83 -A06 : paragraphs 17, 67, 69
  • Directive 2004/83 -A09 : paragraph 52
  • Directive 2004/83 -A09P1 : paragraphs 18, 57, 59, 61, 64, 66, 68
  • Directive 2004/83 -A09P1LA : paragraphs 1, 45, 49, 53, 54, 62, 63, 67, 69, 72
  • Directive 2004/83 -A09P1LB : paragraph 54
  • Directive 2004/83 -A09P2 : paragraph 18
  • Directive 2004/83 -A09P3 : paragraphs 19, 55
  • Directive 2004/83 -A10 : paragraph 52
  • Directive 2004/83 -A10P1 : paragraph 20
  • Directive 2004/83 -A10P1LB : paragraphs 55, 63, 69, 71
  • Directive 2004/83 -A13 : paragraphs 52, 79
  • Directive 2004/83 -C10 : paragraphs 10, 48
  • Directive 2004/83 -C16 : paragraphs 11, 47
  • Directive 2004/83 -C17 : paragraphs 11, 47
  • Directive 2004/83 -C3 : paragraphs 9, 47
  • Court of Justice - Judgment C -175/08 : paragraphs 47, 48, 77
  • Court of Justice - Judgment C -31/09 : paragraphs 47, 48
  • Court of Justice - Judgment C -411/10 : paragraph 48
  • Court of Justice - Opinion C -71/11 : paragraph 65

Operative part

  • Interprets : Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU (2007), Article 10 -P1
  • Interprets : Directive 2004/83 -A02LC
  • Interprets : Directive 2004/83 -A06
  • Interprets : Directive 2004/83 -A09P1LA

Opinion


Dates

Date of the lodging of the application initiating proceedings

  • 18/02/2011

Date of the Opinion

  • 19/04/2012

Date of the hearing

Information not available

Date of delivery

05/09/2012


References

Publication in the Official Journal

Applications: OJ C 130 from 30.04.2011, p.11 ; OJ C 173 from 11.06.2011, p.4

Judgment: OJ C 331 from 27.10.2012, p.5

Name of the parties

Y and Z

Notes on Academic Writings

  1. Cellamare, Giovanni: Il rischio di essere perseguitato per motivi religiosi può giustificare l'attribuzione dello status di rifugiato. Non si può esigere che il richiedente rinunci a praticare la propria fede nel Paese di origine, Guida al diritto 2012 nº 41 p.94-96 (IT)
  2. Gazin, Fabienne: Persécutions religieuses, Europe 2012 Novembre Comm. nº 11 p.23-24 (FR)
  3. Den Heijer, Maarten: Discretie mag niet worden verlangd, Asiel en Migrantenrecht 2012 p.344-346 (NL)
  4. Aubert, Michel ; Broussy, Emmanuelle ; Cassagnabère, Hervé: Chronique de jurisprudence de la CJUE. La Cour interprète la directive 2004/83/CE au regard des craintes de persécution pour un motif religieux. 1º) Toute atteinte à la liberté de religion n'est pas un acte de persécution au sens de la directive ; 2º) L'existence d'un tel acte peut résulter d'une atteinte à la manifestation extérieure de la liberté de religion ; 3º) Il revient à l'autorité responsable de l'examen de la demande d'asile de fonder son appréciation du risque personnel encouru par l'intéressé in concreto sur la base d'éléments tant objectifs que subjectifs ; 4º) La circonstance que le demandeur pourrait, de retour dans son pays d'origine, limiter le risque invoqué en renonçant à certains actes religieux ne saurait être prise en compte, L'actualité juridique ; droit administratif 2012 p.2271-2272 (FR)
  5. Marx, Reinhard: Verfolgung aus religiösen Gründen, Neue Zeitschrift für Verwaltungsrecht 2012 p.1615-1617 (DE)
  6. Lübbe, Anna: Mindestnormen für die Anerkennung als Flüchtling oder als Person mit subsidiärem Schutzstatus, Religion, Ahmadiyya-Glaubensgemeinschaft, Zeitschrift für Ausländerrecht und Ausländerpolitik 2012 p.436-437 (DE)
  7. Apostoli, Adriana: La Corte di giustizia si pronuncia su richieste di riconoscimento dello status di rifugiato per motivi religiosi, Giurisprudenza costituzionale 2012 p.3772-3779 (IT)
  8. Zwaan, Karin: Rechtspraak Vreemdelingen recht (Ed. Ars Aequi Libri - Nijmegen) 2012 p.101-104 (NL)
  9. Vatovec, Katarina: Veroizpoved kot razlog za preganjanje, Pravna praksa 2012 nº 39-40 p.35 (SL)
  10. Tinç, Mehmet: Jurisprudence de la Cour de justice de l'Union européenne en matière de droits fondamentaux, L'Europe des libertés: revue d'actualité juridique 2012 nº 39/40 p.64 (FR)
  11. Carlier, Jean-Yves: La libre circulation des personnes dans et vers l'Union européenne, Journal de droit européen 2013 nº 197 p.103-114 (FR)
  12. Sbailò, Ciro: "Identità religiosa" e "spazio pubblico": spunti di riflessione in una sentenza della Corte di giustizia dell'Unione europea, Diritto pubblico comparato ed europeo 2013 p.256-260 (IT)
  13. Lehmann, Julian M: Persecution, Concealment and the Limits of a Human Rights Approach in (European) Asylum Law – The Case of Germany v Y and Z in the Court of Justice of the European Union, International journal of refugee law 2014 Vol. 26 p.65-81 (EN)
  14. Carlier, Jean-Yves: Droit européen des migrations, Journal de droit européen 2014 nº 207 p.105-114 (FR)
  15. Rodrigues Araújo , Alexandra Maria : The Qualification for Being a Refugee under EU Law: Religion as a Reason for Persecution , European Journal of Migration and Law 2014 Vol.16 n°4 p.535-558 (EN)
  16. Münch, Berthold: Das Urteil des EuGH zur Verfolgung aus religiösen Gründen vom 05.09.2012, Schriften zum Migrationsrecht, Freiheit (Ed. Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden 2014) 2014 p.232-241 (DE)
  17. Münch, Berthold: Das Urteil des EuGH zur Verfolgung aus religiösen Gründen vom 05.09.2012, Freiheit, Hohenheimer Tage zum Ausländerrecht 2013 (Ed. Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden 2014) 2014 p.232-241 (DE)
  18. Daniel, Élise: Deux petits arrêts rendus en grande chambre . - À propos des arrêts du 14 mars 2017 sur le port du voile en entreprise, Europe 2017 Avril nº 05 p.5-10 (FR)
  19. Carlier, Jean-Yves ; Leboeuf, Luc: Droit européen des migrations, Journal de droit européen 2019 nº 3 p.114-130 (FR)



Procedural Analysis Information

Source of the question referred for a preliminary ruling

Bundesverwaltungsgericht - Germany

Subject-matter

  • area of freedom, security and justice
  • - asylum policy
  • Fundamental rights
  • - Charter of Fundamental Rights

Procedure and result

  • Reference for a preliminary ruling

Formation of the Court

grande chambre (Cour)

Judge-Rapporteur

Bay Larsen

Advocate General

Bot

Language(s) of the Case

  • German

Language(s) of the Opinion

  • French