Judgment of the Court (Fourth Chamber) of 7 November 2013.
Minister voor Immigratie en Asiel v X (C-199/12) and Y (C-200/12) and Z v Minister voor Immigratie en Asiel (C-201/12).
References for a preliminary ruling: Raad van State - Netherlands.
(Directive 2004/83/EC - Minimum standards relating to the conditions for granting refugee status or subsidiary protection status - Article 10(1)(d) - Membership of a particular social group - Sexual orientation - Reason for persecution - Article 9(1) - Concept of ‘persecution’ - Well-founded fear of being persecuted on account of membership of a particular social group - Acts sufficiently serious to justify such a fear - Legislation criminalising homosexual acts - Article 4 - Individual assessment of the facts and circumstances.
Joined cases C-199/12 to C-201/12.
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