Presentation of the Members
Koen Lenaerts
Koen Lenaerts

Born 1954; lic. iuris, Ph.D. in Law (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven); Master of Laws, Master in Public Administration (Harvard University); Lecturer (1979-83), subsequently Professor of European Law, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (since 1983); Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice (1984-85); Professor at the College of Europe, Bruges (1984-89); member of the Brussels Bar (1986-89); Visiting Professor at the Harvard Law School (1989); Judge at the Court of First Instance of the European Communities from 25 September 1989 to 6 October 2003; Judge at the Court of Justice since 7 October 2003; Vice-President of the Court of Justice from 9 October 2012 to 7 October 2015; President of the Court of Justice since 8 October 2015.

Rosario Silva de Lapuerta
Rosario Silva de Lapuerta

Born 1954; Bachelor of Laws (Universidad Complutense, Madrid); Abogado del Estado in Malaga; Abogado del Estado at the Legal Service of the Ministry of Transport, Tourism and Communication and, subsequently, at the Legal Service of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Head Abogado del Estado of the State Legal Service for Cases before the Court of Justice of the European Communities and Deputy Director-General of the Community and International Legal Assistance Department (Ministry of Justice); member of the Commission think tank on the future of the Community judicial system; Head of the Spanish delegation in the ‘Friends of the Presidency' Group with regard to the reform of the Community judicial system in the Treaty of Nice and of the Council ad hoc working party on the Court of Justice; Professor of Community Law at the Diplomatic School, Madrid; Co-director of the journal Noticias de la Unión Europea; Judge at the Court of Justice since 7 October 2003; Vice President of the Court of Justice since 9 October 2018.

Jean-Claude Bonichot
Jean-Claude Bonichot

Born 1955; graduated in law at the University of Metz, degree from the Institut d'études politiques, Paris, former student at the École nationale d'administration; rapporteur (1982-85), commissaire du gouvernement (1985-87 and 1992-99), Judge (1999-2000), President of the Sixth Sub-Division of the Judicial Division (2000-06), at the Council of State; Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice (1987-91); Director of the Private Office of the Minister for Labour, Employment and Vocational Training, then Director of the Private Office of the Minister of State for the Civil Service and Modernisation of Administration (1991-92); Head of the Legal Mission of the Council of State at the National Health Insurance Fund for Employed Persons (2001-06); Associate Professor at the University of Metz (1988-2000), then at the University of Paris I, Panthéon-Sorbonne (from 2000); author of numerous publications on administrative law, Community law and European human rights law; Founder and chairman of the editorial committee of the Bulletin de jurisprudence de droit de l'urbanisme, co-founder and member of the editorial committee of the Bulletin juridique des collectivités locales; President of the Scientific Council of the Research Group on Institutions and Law governing Regional and Urban Planning and Habitats; Judge at the Court of Justice since 7 October 2006.

Alexander Arabadjiev
Alexander Arabadjiev

Born 1949; legal studies (St Kliment Ohridski University, Sofia); Judge at the District Court, Blagoevgrad (1975-83); Judge at the Regional Court, Blagoevgrad (1983-86); Judge at the Supreme Court (1986-91); Judge at the Constitutional Court (1991-2000); member of the European Commission of Human Rights (1997-99); member of the European Convention on the Future of Europe (2002-03); member of the National Assembly (2001-06); Observer at the European Parliament; Judge at the Court of Justice since 12 January 2007.

Alexandra (Sacha) Prechal
Alexandra (Sacha) Prechal

Born 1959; studied law (University of Groningen, 1977-83); Doctor of Laws (University of Amsterdam, 1995); Law Lecturer in the Law Faculty of the University of Maastricht (1983-87); Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice of the European Communities (1987-91); Lecturer at the Europa Institute of the Law Faculty of the University of Amsterdam (1991-95); Professor of European Law in the Law Faculty of the University of Tilburg (1995-2003); Professor of European Law in the Law Faculty of the University of Utrecht and board member of the Europa Institute of the University of Utrecht (from 2003); member of the editorial board of several national and international legal journals; author of numerous publications; member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences; Judge at the Court of Justice since 10 June 2010.

Michail Vilaras
Michail Vilaras

Born 1950; lawyer (1974-80); law degree from the University of Athens (1973); diploma of advanced studies (DEA) in labour law from the University of Paris II, Panthéon-Sorbonne (1977); national expert with the Legal Service of the Commission of the European Communities (1988-1990), then Principal Administrator in Directorate General V (Employment, Industrial Relations, Social Affairs) (1990-1994); Junior Officer, Junior Member and, since 1999, Member of the Greek Council of State; Associate Member of the Superior Special Court of Greece; Member of the Central Legislative Drafting Committee of Greece (1996-98); Director of the Legal Service in the General Secretariat of the Greek Government (1996-1998); Judge at the General Court of the European Union (1998 to 2010, President of Chamber from 2004 to 2010); Member of the Supreme Council for Administrative Justice (2011-2012); Member of the Special Court for Disputes relating to the Remuneration of Judges and of the Special Court for Actions against Judges (2013-2014); Member of the Advisory Panel of Experts on Candidates for Election as Judge to the European Court of Human Rights (2014-2015); Member of the Committee responsible for giving an Opinion on Candidates' Suitability to perform the Duties of Judge at the European Union Civil Service Tribunal (2012-2015); Lecturer in European Law at the National School for the Judiciary (1995-1996 and 2012-2015); Judge at the Court of Justice since 7 October 2015.

Eugene Regan
Eugene Regan

Born 1952; degree in politics and economics (1974) and master's degree in political economy (1975) from University College Dublin; master's degree in international law and comparative law from Vrije Universiteit, Brussels (1979); Barrister, King's Inns, Dublin (1985); Economist at the Irish Farmers' Association, Dublin (1975-76); Director of the Office of the Irish Farmers' Association at the European Economic Community (1976-79); Chief Executive of the Irish Meat Exporters Association (1980-84); Policy Adviser to the Commissioner Peter Sutherland (1985-88); Director and General Manager of Agra Trading Ltd (1989-95); practice as Barrister (1995-2005) and Senior Counsel (from 2005); Member of the Seanad (High Chamber of the Irish Parliament) (2007-11); Chairman of the Lawyers' Group and Project Leader of the Justice Group at the Institute of International and European Affairs (since 1998); Judge at the Court of Justice since 7 October 2015.

Maciej Szpunar
Maciej Szpunar

Born 1971; degrees in law from the University of Silesia and the College of Europe, Bruges; Doctor of Law (2000); habilitated Doctor in Legal Science (2009); Professor of Law (2013); Visiting Scholar at Jesus College, Cambridge (1998), the University of Liège (1999) and the European University Institute, Florence (2003); lawyer (2001-08), member of the Committee for Private International Law of the Civil Law Codification Commission under the Ministry of Justice (2001-08); member of the Board of Trustees of the Academy of European Law, Trier (from 2008); member of the Research Group on Existing EC Private Law (‘Acquis Group') (from 2006); Undersecretary of State in the Office of the Committee for European Integration (2008-09), then in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2010-13); Vice-Chairman of the Scientific Board of the Institute of Justice; Agent of the Polish Government in a large number of cases before the European Union judicature; member of the editorial board of a number of legal journals; author of numerous publications in the fields of European law and private international law; Advocate General at the Court of Justice since 23 October 2013.

Thomas von Danwitz
Thomas von Danwitz

Born 1962; studied at Bonn, Geneva and Paris; State examination in law (1986 and 1992); Doctor of Laws (University of Bonn, 1988); International diploma in public administration (École nationale d'administration, 1990); teaching authorisation (University of Bonn, 1996); Professor of German public law and European law (1996-2003), Dean of the Faculty of Law of the Ruhr University, Bochum (2000-01); Professor of German public law and European law (University of Cologne, 2003-06); Director of the Institute of Public Law and Administrative Science (2006); Visiting professor at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy (2000), François Rabelais University, Tours (2001-06), and the University of Paris I, Panthéon-Sorbonne (2005-06); Doctor honoris causa of François Rabelais University, Tours (2010); Judge at the Court of Justice since 7 October 2006.

Camelia Toader
Camelia Toader

Born 1963; Degree in law (1986), doctorate in law (1997), University of Bucharest; Trainee judge at the Court of First Instance, Buftea (1986-88); Judge at the Court of First Instance, Sector 5, Bucharest (1988-92); called to the Bucharest Bar (1992); Lecturer (1992-2005), then, from 2005, professor in civil law and European contract law at the University of Bucharest; Doctoral studies and research at the Max Planck Institute for Private International Law, Hamburg (between 1992 and 2004); Head of the European Integration Unit at the Ministry of Justice (1997-99); Judge at the High Court of Cassation and Justice (1999-2007); Visiting professor at the Vienna University (2000 and 2011); taught Community law at the National Institute for Magistrates (2003 and 2005-06); Member of the editorial board of several legal journals; associate member, as from 2010, and then titular member, as from 2017, of the International Academy of Comparative Law and honorary researcher at the Centre for European Legal Studies of the Legal Research Institute of the Romanian Academy; Judge at the Court of Justice since 12 January 2007.

François Biltgen
François Biltgen

Born 1958; master's degree in law (1981) and diploma of advanced studies (DEA) in Community law at the University of Law, Economics and Social Sciences, Paris II (1982); graduated from the Institut d'études politiques, Paris (1982); lawyer at the Luxembourg bar (1987-99); Deputy in the Chamber of Deputies (1994-99); Municipal Councillor of the town of Esch-sur-Alzette (1987-99); Deputy Mayor of Esch-sur-Alzette (1997-99); Alternate Member of the Luxembourg delegation to the Committee of the Regions of the European Union (1994-99); Minister for Labour and Employment, Minister for Religious Affairs, Minister for Relations with Parliament, Minister with responsibility for Communications (1999-2004); Minister for Labour and Employment, Minister for Religious Affairs, Minister for Culture, Higher Education and Research (2004-09); Minister for Justice, Minister for the Civil Service and Administrative Reform, Minister for Higher Education and Research, Minister for Communications and the Media, Minister for Religious Affairs (2009-13); Joint President of the Ministerial Conference of the Bologna Process in 2005 and 2009; Joint President of the Ministerial Conference of the European Space Agency (2012-13); Judge at the Court of Justice since 7 October 2013.

Küllike Jürimäe
Küllike Jürimäe

Born 1962; law degree, University of Tartu (1981-86); Assistant to the  Public Prosecutor, Tallinn (1986-91); Diploma, Estonian School of Diplomacy (1991-92); Legal Adviser (1991-93) and General Counsel at the Chamber of Commerce and Industry (1992-93); Judge, Tallinn Court of Appeal (1993-2004); European Masters in Human Rights and Democratisation, Universities of Padua and Nottingham (2002-03); Judge at the General Court from 12 May 2004 to 23 October 2013; Judge at the Court of Justice since 23 October 2013.

Constantinos Lycourgos
Constantinos Lycourgos

Born 1964; diploma of advanced studies in Community law (1987) and Doctor of Laws of Université Panthéon-Assas (1991); Lecturer at the life-long learning centre at Université Panthéon-Assas; called to the Cyprus Bar (1993); Special Adviser on European affairs to the Minister for Foreign Affairs (1996-99); member of the negotiating team for the accession of Cyprus to the European Union (1998-2003); Adviser on European Union law at the Law Office of the Republic (1999-2002); member of Greek-Cypriot delegations in negotiations for a comprehensive settlement of the Cyprus problem (2002-14); Senior Lawyer (2002-07), then Senior Counsel of the Republic (2007-14) and Head of the European Union Law Section of the Law Office of the Republic (2003-14); Agent of the Cypriot Government before the Courts of the European Union (2004-14); Judge at the Court of Justice since 8 October 2014.

Allan Rosas
Allan Rosas

Born 1948; Doctor of Laws (1977) of the University of Turku (Finland); Professor of Law at the University of Turku (1978-81) and at the Åbo Akademi University (Turku/Åbo) (1981-96); Director of the latter's Institute for Human Rights (1985-95); various international and national academic positions of responsibility and memberships of learned societies; coordinated several international and national research projects and programmes, including in the fields of EU law, international law, humanitarian and human rights law, constitutional law and comparative public administration; represented the Finnish Government as member of, or adviser to, Finnish delegations at various international conferences and meetings; expert functions in relation to Finnish legal life, including in governmental law commissions and committees of the Finnish Parliament, as well as the UN, Unesco, OSCE (CSCE) and the Council of Europe; from 1995 Principal Legal Adviser at the Legal Service of the European Commission, in charge of external relations; from March 2001, Deputy Director-General of the European Commission Legal Service; Judge at the Court of Justice since 17 January 2002.

Juliane Kokott
Juliane Kokott

Born 1957; law studies (Universities of Bonn and Geneva); LL.M. (American University/Washington DC); Doctor of Laws (Heidelberg University, 1985; Harvard University, 1990); Visiting Professor at the University of California, Berkeley (1991); Professor of German and Foreign Public Law, International Law and European Law at the Universities of Augsburg (1992), Heidelberg (1993) and Düsseldorf (1994); Deputy Judge for the Federal Government at the Court of Conciliation and Arbitration of the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE); Deputy Chairperson of the Federal Government's Advisory Council on Global Change (WBGU, 1996); Professor of International Law, International Business Law and European Law at the University of St Gallen (1999); Director of the Institute for European and International Business Law at the University of St Gallen (2000); Deputy Director of the Master of Business Law programme at the University of St Gallen (2001); Advocate General at the Court of Justice since 7 October 2003.

Endre Juhász
Endre Juhász

Born 1944; graduated in law from the University of Szeged, Hungary (1967); Hungarian Bar Entrance Examinations (1970); postgraduate studies in comparative law, University of Strasbourg, France (1969, 1970, 1971, 1972); official in the Legal Department of the Ministry of Foreign Trade (1966-74); Director for Legislative Matters (1973-74); First Commercial Secretary at the Hungarian Embassy, Brussels, responsible for European Community issues (1974-79); Director at the Ministry of Foreign Trade (1979-83); First Commercial Secretary, then Commercial Counsellor, to the Hungarian Embassy in Washington DC, USA (1983-89); Director-General at the Ministry of Trade and Ministry of International Economic Relations (1989-91); chief negotiator for the Association Agreement between the Republic of Hungary and the European Communities and their Member States (1990-91); Secretary-General of the Ministry of International Economic Relations; Head of the Office of European Affairs (1992); State Secretary at the Ministry of International Economic Relations (1993-94); State Secretary, President of the Office of European Affairs, Ministry of Industry and Trade (1994); Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, Chief of Mission of the Republic of Hungary to the European Union (January 1995 to May 2003); chief negotiator for the accession of the Republic of Hungary to the European Union (July 1998 to April 2003); Minister without portfolio for the coordination of matters of European integration (from May 2003); Judge at the Court of Justice since 11 May 2004.

Marko Ilešič
Marko Ilešič
Born 1947; Doctor of Law (University of Ljubljana); specialism in comparative law (Universities of Strasbourg and Coimbra); judicial service examination; Professor of Civil, Commercial and Private International Law; Vice-Dean (1995-2001) and Dean (2001-04) of the Faculty of Law at the University of Ljubljana; author of numerous legal publications; Honorary Judge and President of Chamber at the Labour Court, Ljubljana (1975-86); President of the Sports Tribunal of Slovenia (1978-86); President of the Arbitration Chamber of the Ljubljana Stock Exchange; Arbitrator at the Chamber of Commerce of Yugoslavia (until 1991) and Slovenia (from 1991); Arbitrator at the International Chamber of Commerce in Paris; Judge on the Board of Appeals of UEFA and FIFA; President of the Union of Slovene Lawyers' Associations (1993-2005); member of the International Law Association, of the International Maritime Committee and of several other international legal societies; Judge at the Court of Justice since 11 May 2004.
Jiří Malenovský
Jiří Malenovský

Born 1950; Doctor of Law from the Charles University in Prague (1975); senior faculty member (1974-90), Vice-Dean (1989-91) and Head of the Department of International and European Law (1990-92) at       Masaryk University, Brno; Judge at the Constitutional Court of Czechoslovakia (1992); Envoy to the Council of Europe (1993-98); President of the Committee of Ministers' Deputies of the Council of Europe (1995); Senior Director at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1998-2000); President of the Czech and Slovak branch of the International Law Association (1999-2001); Judge at the Constitutional Court (2000-04); member of the Legislative Council (1998-2000); member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague (from 2000); Professor of Public International Law at Masaryk University, Brno (2001); Judge at the Court of Justice since 11 May 2004.

Egils Levits
Egils Levits

Born 1955; graduated in law and in political science from the University of Hamburg; Research Assistant at the Faculty of Law, University of Kiel; Adviser to the Latvian Parliament on questions of international law, constitutional law and legislative reform; Ambassador of the Republic of Latvia to Germany and Switzerland (1992-93), Austria, Switzerland and Hungary (1994-95); Vice Prime Minister and Minister for Justice, acting Minister for Foreign Affairs (1993-94); Conciliator at the Court of Conciliation and Arbitration within the OSCE (from 1997); member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration (from 2001); elected as Judge at the European Court of Human Rights in 1995, re-elected in 1998 and 2001; numerous publications in the spheres of constitutional and administrative law, law reform and European Community law; Judge at the Court of Justice since 11 May 2004.

Lars Bay Larsen
Lars Bay Larsen

Born 1953; awarded degrees in political science (1976) and law (1983) at the University of Copenhagen; official at the Ministry of Justice (1983-85); Lecturer (1984-91), then Associate Professor (1991-96), in Family Law at the University of Copenhagen; Head of Section at the Advokatsamfund (Danish Bar Association) (1985-86); Head of Section (1986-91) at the Ministry of Justice; called to the Bar (1991); Head of Division (1991-95), Head of the Police Department (1995-99) and Head of the Law Department (2000-03) at the Ministry of Justice; Representative of the Kingdom of Denmark on the K-4 Committee (1995-2000), the Schengen Central Group (1996-98) and the Europol Management Board (1998-2000); Judge at the Højesteret (Supreme Court) (2003-06); Judge at the Court of Justice since 11 January 2006.

Eleanor Sharpston
Eleanor Sharpston

Born 1955; studied economics, languages and law at King’s College, Cambridge (1973-77); university teaching and research at Corpus Christi College, Oxford (1977-80); called to the Bar (Middle Temple, 1980); Barrister (1980-87 and 1990-2005); Legal Secretary in the Chambers of Advocate General, subsequently Judge, Sir Gordon Slynn (1987-90); Lecturer in EC and comparative law (Director of European Legal Studies) at University College London (1990-92); Lecturer in the Faculty of Law (1992-98), and subsequently Affiliated Lecturer (1998-2005), at the University of Cambridge; Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge (1992-2010); Emeritus Fellow (2011 - ); Senior Research Fellow at the Centre for European Legal Studies of the University of Cambridge (1998-2005); Queen’s Counsel (1999); Bencher of Middle Temple (2005); Honorary Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford (2010); LL.D (h.c.) Glasgow (2010), Nottingham Trent (2011) and Stockholm (2014); Advocate General at the Court of Justice from 11 January 2006.

Yves Bot
Yves Bot

Born 1947; graduate of the Faculty of Law, Rouen; Doctor of Laws (University of Paris II, Panthéon-Assas); Lecturer at the Faculty of Law, Le Mans; Deputy Public Prosecutor, then Senior Deputy Public Prosecutor, at the Public Prosecutor's Office, Le Mans (1974-82); Public Prosecutor at the Regional Court, Dieppe (1982-84); Deputy Public Prosecutor at the Regional Court, Strasbourg (1984-86); Public Prosecutor at the Regional Court, Bastia (1986-88); Advocate General at the Court of Appeal, Caen (1988-91); Public Prosecutor at the Regional Court, Le Mans (1991-93); Special Adviser to the Minister for Justice (1993-95); Public Prosecutor at the Regional Court, Nanterre (1995-2002); Public Prosecutor at the Regional Court, Paris (2002-04); Principal State Prosecutor at the Court of Appeal, Paris (2004-06); Advocate General at the Court of Justice since 7 October 2006.

Marek Safjan
Marek Safjan

Born 1949; Doctor of Law (University of Warsaw, 1980); habilitated Doctor in Legal Science (University of Warsaw, 1990); Professor of Law (1998); Director of the Civil Law Institute of the University of Warsaw (1992-96); Vice-Rector of the University of Warsaw (1994-97); Secretary-General of the Polish Section of the Henri Capitant Association of Friends of French Legal Culture (1994-98); representative of Poland on the Bioethics Committee of the Council of Europe (1991-97); Judge (1997-98), then President (1998-2006), of the Constitutional Court; member (since 1994) and Vice-President (since 2010) of the International Academy of Comparative Law, member of the International Association of Law, Ethics and Science (since 1995), member of the Helsinki Committee in Poland; member of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences; Pro Merito Medal conferred by the Secretary-General of the Council of Europe (2007); author of a very large number of publications in the fields of civil law, medical law and European law; Doctor honoris causa of the European University Institute (2012); Judge at the Court of Justice since 7 October 2009.

Daniel Šváby
Daniel Šváby

Born 1951; Doctor of Laws (University of Bratislava); Judge at the District Court, Bratislava; Judge, Appeal Court, responsible for civil law cases, and Vice-President, Appeal Court, Bratislava; member of the Civil and Family Law Section at the Ministry of Justice Law Institute; acting Judge responsible for commercial law cases at the Supreme Court; member of the European Commission of Human Rights (Strasbourg); Judge at the Constitutional Court (2000-04); Judge at the Court of First Instance from 12 May 2004 to 6 October 2009; Judge at the Court of Justice since 7 October 2009.

Maria Berger
Maria Berger

Born 1956; studied law and economics (1975-79), Doctor of Law; Assistant Lecturer and Lecturer at the Institute of Public Law and Political Sciences of the University of Innsbruck (1979-84); Administrator at the Federal Ministry of Science and Research, ultimately Deputy Head of Unit (1984-88); official responsible for questions relating to the European Union at the Federal Chancellery (1988-89); Head of the European Integration Section of the Federal Chancellery (preparation for the Republic of Austria's accession to the European Union) (1989-92); Director at the EFTA Surveillance Authority, in Geneva and Brussels (1993-94); Vice-President of Danube University, Krems (1995-96); member of the European Parliament (November 1996 to January 2007 and December 2008 to July 2009) and member of the Committee on Legal Affairs; substitute member of the European Convention on the Future of Europe (February 2002 to July 2003); Councillor of the Municipality of Perg (September 1997 to September 2009); Federal Minister for Justice (January 2007 to December 2008); publications on various topics of European law; Honorary Professor of European law at the University of Vienna; Honorary Senator of the University of Innsbruck; Judge at the Court of Justice since 7 October 2009.

Carl Gustav Fernlund
Carl Gustav Fernlund

Born 1950; graduated in law from the University of Lund (1975); Clerk at the Landskrona District Court (1976-78); Assistant Judge at an administrative court of appeal (1978-82); Deputy Judge at an administrative court of appeal (1982); Legal Adviser to the Swedish Parliament’s Standing Committee on the Constitution (1983-85); Legal Adviser at the Ministry of Finance (1985-90); Director of the Division for Personal Income Taxes at the Ministry of Finance (1990-96); Director of the Excise Duty Division at the Ministry of Finance (1996-98); Fiscal Counsellor at the Permanent Representation of Sweden to the European Union (1998-2000); Director-General for Legal Affairs in the Tax and Customs Department of the Ministry of Finance (2000-05); Judge at the Supreme Administrative Court (2005-09); President of the Administrative Court of Appeal, Gothenburg (2009-11); Judge at the Court of Justice since 6 October 2011.

Christopher Vajda
Christopher Vajda

Born 1955; law degree from Cambridge University; licence spéciale en droit européen at the Université libre de Bruxelles (grande distinction); called to the Bar of England and Wales by Gray's Inn (1979); Barrister (1979-2012); called to the Bar of Northern Ireland (1996); Queen's Counsel (1997); Bencher of Gray's Inn (2003); Recorder of the Crown Court (2003-12); Treasurer of the United Kingdom Association for European Law (2001-12); contributor to 3rd to 6th eds of European Community Law of Competition (Bellamy and Child); Judge at the Court of Justice since 8 October 2012.

Nils Wahl
Nils Wahl

Born 1961; Doctor of Laws, University of Stockholm (1995); Associate Professor (docent) and holder of the Jean Monnet Chair of European Law (1995); Professor of European Law, University of Stockholm (2001); Managing Director of an educational foundation (1993-2004); Chairman of the Nätverket för europarättslig forskning (Swedish Network for European Legal Research) (2001-06); member of the Rådet för konkurrensfrågor (Council for Competition Law Matters) (2001-06); Judge at the General Court from 7 October 2006 to 28 November 2012; Advocate General at the Court of Justice since 28 November 2012. 

Siniša Rodin
Siniša Rodin

Born 1963; University of Zagreb, Faculty of Law, Ph.D. 1995; University of Michigan Law School, L.L.M. 1992; Harvard Law School, Fulbright Fellow and Visiting Scholar (2001-2002); tenure track and tenured professor at University of Zagreb, Faculty of Law since 1987, Jean Monnet Chair since 2006 and Jean Monnet Chair ad personam since 2011; Cornell Law School Visiting professor 2012; Member of the Croatian Constitutional Amendment Committee, President of the working group on EU membership (2009-2010); Member of the Croatian EU membership negotiating team (2006-2011); Author of numerous publications; Judge at the Court of Justice since 4 July 2013.

Manuel Campos Sánchez-Bordona
Manuel Campos Sánchez-Bordona

Born 1950; graduated in law from the Universities of Seville and Grenada (1967-72); Public Prosecutor at the courts of Palma de Mallorca and Seville (1977-82); Judge in the Chamber for Contentious Administrative Proceedings of the High Court of Justice of Andalucia, of the National High Court and of the High Court of Justice of the Canaries (1982-89); President of the Chamber for Contentious Administrative Proceedings of the High Court of Justice of Cantabria (1989-94); Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice of the European Communities (1995-99); Member of the Board of the Association of Councils of State and Supreme Administrative Jurisdictions of the European Union (ACA-Europe) (2006-14); Member of the Central Electoral Board (2012-15); Judge in the Administrative Chamber of the Supreme Court of Spain (1999-2015); Advocate General at the Court of Justice since 7 October 2015.

Henrik Saugmandsgaard Øe
Henrik Saugmandsgaard Øe

Born 1964; graduated in law from the University of Aarhus (1991); master's degree in European Law from the College of Europe in Bruges (1993); lecturer at the University of Aarhus (1991-93) and the University of Copenhagen (1999-2001); visiting professor at the Universities of Copenhagen and Aalborg (since 2008); lawyer at the Danish Bar (1995); Legal Secretary at the Court of First Instance of the European Communities (1994-99); Public Prosecutor at the Prosecution Office, Copenhagen (1999-2000), and Inspector in police districts (2004-06); Legal Adviser to the representative of the Danish Prime Minister during the negotiations for drawing up the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (1999-2000); Head of Section in the Office for EU Law (1999-2000), Head of Department in the Office for EU Law and Human Rights (2000-01) and Head of Department in the Office for Property and Obligations Law (2001-06), at the Ministry of Justice; Consumer Ombudsman appointed by the Danish Government (2006-14); Judge at the Østre Landsret, Copenhagen (2015); Advocate General at the Court of Justice since 7 October 2015.

Michal Bobek
Michal Bobek

Born 1977; master's degree in law and master's degree in international relations (Charles University in Prague); diploma in English law and the law of the European Union (University of Cambridge); Magister Juris (University of Oxford, St. Edmund Hall); Doctor of Laws (European University Institute, Florence); studies at the Université libre de Bruxelles and the University of Queensland (Australia); Legal Secretary to the President of the Supreme Administrative Court of the Czech Republic (2005-09) and Head of the Research and Documentation Department of that court (2008-09); qualified to perform the duties of a judge in the Czech Republic (2009); Fellow (2011-12) and Research Fellow (2013-16) at the Institute of European and Comparative Law of the University of Oxford; Professor at the College of Europe in Bruges (2013-15); Member of the Board of Appeals of the Czech National Bank (2013-15); Ad hoc judge at the European Court of Human Rights (2013-15); Co-founder and President of the Czech Society for European and Comparative Law; lecturer and visiting professor at numerous universities in Europe and elsewhere; author of numerous publications in the field of EU law, European human rights, comparative (public) law and legal theory; Advocate General at the Court of Justice since 7 October 2015.

Evgeni Tanchev
Evgeni Tanchev

Born 1952; graduated in law from St Kliment Ohridski University, Sofia (1975); Doctor of Laws (1979); Lecturer (1977-84), Senior Lecturer (1984-90) and then Professor at St Kliment Ohridski University, Sofia (1990-2013); Dean of the Faculty of Law of St Kliment Ohridski University, Sofia (1988-91); member of the Council on Legislation at the Bulgarian National Assembly (1995-97); Jean Monnet Professor at the New Bulgarian University (2002-05); Chairman of the Council of Legal Advisers to the President of Bulgaria (2002-03); Judge (2003-09), then President (2009-12), of the Bulgarian Constitutional Court; Head of the Constitutional Law Department at the Faculty of Law of St Kliment Ohridski University, Sofia (2013-16); member (2006-16) and Vice-President of the Venice Commission of the Council of Europe (2013-15); member of the Constitutional Council at the Bulgarian Ombudsman (2015‑16); editor of a number of legal journals; author of numerous legal publications; Advocate General at the Court of Justice since 19 September 2016.

Peter George Xuereb
Peter George Xuereb

Born 1954; graduated in law from the University of Malta (1977); Master of Laws, University of London (1979); Ph.D., University of Cambridge (1982); lecturer at Ealing College of Higher Education (1982-84); lecturer at Exeter University (1984-90); senior lecturer at Queen Mary and Westfield College, University of London (1990-93); legal adviser in the private sector, then at the Maltese Parliament (1993-2016); Professor and Head of the Department of European and Comparative Law at the University of Malta (1993-2016); Director of the European Documentation and Research Centre of the University of Malta (1993-2016); President of the Malta European Law Association; author of numerous publications; Judge at the General Court (2016-18); Judge at the Court of Justice since 8 October 2018.

Nuno José Cardoso da Silva Piçarra
Nuno José Cardoso da Silva Piçarra

Born 1957; graduated in law from the University of Lisbon (1980); Master of Laws of the University of Lisbon (1986); Doctor of Laws of the New University of Lisbon (2003); Law lecturer at the University of Lisbon (1981-86); Lawyer-linguist (1986-87) and Lawyer-reviser (1987-90) at the Court of Justice; Legal Secretary at the Court of First Instance (1990-96); Visiting Professor at the Europa-Institut, Saarland University, Germany (1987-96); National coordinator for matters concerning free movement of persons in the European area, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Portugal (1996-99); member of the K4 Committee of the Council and of the Central Group of the permanent consultation structure of the Schengen agreements (1996-99); Lecturer and doctoral student at the New University of Lisbon (1999-2003); Assistant Professor of Law at the New University of Lisbon (2003-08); Associate Professor of Law at the New University of Lisbon (2008-18); Portuguese member of the FreSsco network of independent experts in the fields of free movement of workers and social security coordination within the European Union (2004-17) and of the Odysseus academic network for legal studies on immigration and asylum in Europe (2004-18); member of the Management Board of the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (2015-18); author of numerous publications; Judge at the Court of Justice since 8 October 2018.

Lucia Serena Rossi
Lucia Serena Rossi

Born 1958; graduated in law from the University of Bologna (1982); Professor of EU law at the University of Bologna; Director of the International Research Centre on European Law of  the University of Bologna; Lawyer at the Bologna Bar; Associate Professor of International Law at the University of Urbino (1997-2000); Vice-President of the Italian Society of International and EU Law (2009-10); member of the Joint Managerial Committee of the China-EU School of Law of the China University of Political Science and Law (2011-13); Representative of the Italian Government on the Governing Board of the Academy of European Law (2015-18); author of numerous publications; Judge at the Court of Justice since 8 October 2018.

Gerard Hogan
Gerard Hogan

Born 1958; graduated in law from University College Dublin (LL.M., 1981); Doctor of Laws, University College Dublin (LL.D., 1997); degree in law at the University of Pennsylvania (LL.M., 1982); Barrister-at-Law, Honorable Society of King’s Inns, Dublin (1984); doctorate in law at Trinity College Dublin (Ph.D., 2001); law lecturer at Trinity College Dublin (1982-2007); Junior Counsel at the Bar of Ireland (1987-97); Senior Counsel at the Bar of Ireland (1997-2010); Judge at the High Court of Ireland (2010-14); Judge at the Court of Appeal of Ireland (2014-18); author of numerous publications; Advocate General at the Court of Justice since 8 October 2018.

Giovanni Pitruzzella
Giovanni Pitruzzella

Born 1959; graduated in law from the University of Palermo (1982); Professor of Constitutional Law at the University of Palermo; Professor of Constitutional and Competition Law at LUISS Guido Carli University, Rome; Legal Adviser to the Italian Government (1993-96); Professor of Public Law at the University of Cagliari (1986-97); President of the Commission for application of the special status of the Region of Sicily (1998-2002); Legal Adviser to the Italian Ministry of Health (2008-11); member, then President, of the Commission for proper exercise of the right to strike in essential public services (2006-11); President of the Italian Competition Authority (2011-18); appointed by the President of the Republic, in April 2018, as one of the ten members of the Commission for institutional, economic and social reforms and appointed by the Prime Minister, in June 2018, as a member of the group of experts called upon to propose a project of constitutional reform; author of numerous publications on public, constitutional, administrative and competition law; Advocate General at the Court of Justice since 8 October 2018.

Irmantas Jarukaitis
Irmantas Jarukaitis

Born 1973; law degree from the University of Vilnius (1992-97); Doctor of Laws of the University of Vilnius (2008); Lecturer, Associate Professor at the Faculty of Law of the University of Vilnius (1999-2018); Head of Section (2002-03), Deputy Director-General of the Department of European Law of the Lithuanian Ministry of Justice (2004-10); Judge at the Supreme Administrative Court of Lithuania (2010-18); Vice-President of the Supreme Administrative Court of Lithuania (2012-17); Acting President of the Supreme Administrative Court of Lithuania (2015-17); author of a number of publications in the field of European and constitutional law; cofounder and member of the Lithuanian Association of European Law; Judge at the Court of Justice since 8 October 2018.

Alfredo Calot Escobar
Alfredo Calot Escobar

Born 1961; law degree at the University of Valencia (1979-84); Business Analyst at the Council of the Chambers of Commerce of the Autonomous Community of Valencia (1986); Lawyer-linguist at the Court of Justice (1986-90); Lawyer-reviser at the Court of Justice (1990-93); Administrator in the Press and Information Service of the Court of Justice (1993-95); Administrator in the Secretariat of the Institutional Affairs Committee of the European Parliament (1995-96); Aide to the Registrar of the Court of Justice (1996-99); Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice (1999-2000); Head of the Spanish Translation Division at the Court of Justice (2000-01); Director, then Director-General, of Translation at the Court of Justice (2001-10); Registrar of the Court of Justice since 7 October 2010.