Presentation of the Members
Marc van der Woude
Marc van der Woude

Born 1960; law degree (University of Groningen, 1983); studies at the College of Europe (1983-84); Assistant Lecturer at the College of Europe (1984-86); Lecturer at Leiden University (1986-87); Rapporteur in the Directorate-General for Competition of the Commission of the European Communities (1987-89); Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice of the European Communities (1989-92); Policy Coordinator in the Directorate-General for Competition of the Commission of the European Communities (1992-93); Member of the Legal Service of the Commission of the European Communities (1993-95); Member of the Brussels Bar from 1995; Professor at Erasmus University Rotterdam from 2000; author of numerous publications; Judge at the General Court since 13 September 2010; Vice-President of the General Court from 20 September 2016 to 26 September 2019; President of the General Court since 27 September 2019.

Savvas Papasavvas
Savvas Papasavvas

Born 1969; studied at the University of Athens (graduated in 1991); DEA (Diploma of Advanced Studies) in public law, University of Paris II (1992), and PhD in law, University of Aix-Marseille III (1995); admitted to the Cyprus Bar, member of the Nicosia Bar since 1993; Lecturer, University of Cyprus (1997-2002), Lecturer in Constitutional Law since September 2002; Researcher, European Public Law Centre (2001-02); Judge at the General Court since 12 May 2004; Vice-President of the General Court since 27 September 2019.

Heikki Kanninen
Heikki Kanninen

Born 1952; graduate of the Helsinki School of Economics and of the Faculty of Law of the University of Helsinki; Legal Secretary at the Supreme Administrative Court of Finland; General Secretary to the Committee for Reform of Legal Protection in Public Administration; Principal Administrator at the Supreme Administrative Court; General Secretary to the Committee for Reform of Administrative Litigation, Counsellor in the Legislative Drafting Department of the Ministry of Justice; Assistant Registrar at the EFTA Court; Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice of the European Communities; Judge at the Supreme Administrative Court (1998-2005); member of the Asylum Appeal Board; Vice-Chairman of the Committee on the Development of the Finnish Courts; Judge at the Civil Service Tribunal from 6 October 2005 to 6 October 2009; Judge at the General Court since 7 October 2009; Vice-President of the General Court from 17 September 2013 to 19 September 2016.

Vesna Tomljenović
Vesna Tomljenović

Born 1956; University of Rijeka, B.A. 1979; University of Zagreb, L.L.M. 1984, S.J.D. 1996; University of Rijeka, Faculty of Law, Assistant professor (1980-1998), Associate professor (2003-2009), Professor (2009-2013); University of Rijeka, Faculty of Economics, Assistant professor (1990-2013); President of the Croatian Comparative Law Association (2006-2013); Judge at the General Court since 4 July 2013.

Anthony Michael Collins
Anthony Michael Collins

Born 1960; Graduate of Trinity College, Dublin (Legal Science) (1984) and of the Honourable Society of King's Inns, Dublin (Barrister-at-Law) (1986); Bencher of the Honourable Society of King's Inns (since 2013); Adjunct Professor, University College Cork (since 2015); Member, Board of Directors, Irish Centre for European Law (since 1997); Barrister-at-Law (1986-90 and 1997-2003) and Senior Counsel (2003-13) at the Bar of Ireland; Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice of the European Communities (1990-97); Vice-President of the Council of European National Youth Committees (1979-81); General Secretary, Organising Bureau of European School Student Unions (1977-84); General Secretary, Irish Union of School Students (1977-79); Member of the Permanent Delegation of the Council of Bars and Law Societies of Europe (CCBE) to the EU and EFTA Courts (2006-13); Judge at the General Court since 16 September 2013.

Stéphane Gervasoni
Stéphane Gervasoni

Born 1967; graduate of the Institut d'études politiques, Grenoble (1988) and the École nationale d'administration (1993); Junior Officer at the Council of State (Judge-Rapporteur in the Litigation Division (1993-97) and Member of the Social Affairs Division (1996-97)); Legal Adviser at the Council of State (1996-2008); Senior Lecturer at the Institut d'études politiques, Paris (1993-95); Commissaire du gouvernement attached to the Special Pensions Appeal Commission (1994-96); Legal Adviser to the Ministry of the Civil Service and to the City of Paris (1995-97); Secretary-General of the Prefecture of the Département of the Yonne, Sub-Prefect of the District of Auxerre (1997-99); Secretary-General of the Prefecture of the Département of Savoie, Sub-Prefect of the District of Chambéry (1999-2001); Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice of the European Communities (2001-05); full member of the Appeals Board of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) (2001-05); Judge at the European Union Civil Service Tribunal (2005-11, President of Chamber from 2008 to 2011); Councillor of State, Deputy President of the Eighth Chamber of the Litigation Division (2011-13); Member of the Appeals Board of the European Space Agency (2011-13); Judge at the General Court since 16 September 2013.

Dean Spielmann
Dean Spielmann

Born 1962; Bachelor's degree in law from the Catholic University of Louvain (1988) and Master of Laws, University of Cambridge (1990); research assistant at the Catholic University of Louvain (1991-97); lawyer at the Luxembourg Bar (1989-2004); member of the human rights and criminal law committees of the Council of Bars and Law Societies of Europe (CCBE) (2002-04); member of the EU Network of Independent Experts on Fundamental Rights (2002-04); member of the Advisory Commission on Human Rights, Luxembourg (2000-04); Judge (2004-15), Section President (2011-12), Vice-President (2012), then President (2012-15), of the European Court of Human Rights; associate lecturer at the University of Luxembourg (1996-2006); lecturer at the University of Nancy 2 (1997-2009); member of the Grand-Ducal Institute, Moral and Political Science Section (since 2002); Honorary Fellow, Fitzwilliam College, University of Cambridge (since 2013); Honorary Bencher of Gray's Inn, London (since 2013); Honorary Professor, University College London (since 2013); member of scientific committees of several legal journals; author of numerous publications; Judge at the General Court since 13 April 2016.

 

Anna Marcoulli
Anna Marcoulli

Born 1974; graduated in law from the University of East Anglia (1995) and Master of Laws from the University of Bristol (1996); admitted to the Cyprus Bar (1997); member of the Legal Service of the Republic of Cyprus, European Union Section (1998-2008); seconded national expert in the Research and Documentation Division of the Court of Justice of the European Union (2005-07); Legal Adviser to the Cyprus Presidency of the Council of the European Union (2012); member of the Legal Service of the European Commission (2008-16); Judge at the General Court since 13 April 2016.

Ricardo da Silva Passos
Ricardo da Silva Passos

 

Born 1953; graduated in law from the Classical University of Lisbon (1975); diploma of advanced studies at the University of Strasbourg (1978); Master of Laws, Harvard University (1984); Deputy Public Prosecutor at the Court of First Instance, Cascais (1975-76); Lawyer in the Secretariat of the European Commission of Human Rights (1978-86); Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice of the European Communities (1986-87); Head of Division in the Secretariat of the Committee on Legal Affairs and Citizens’ Rights of the European Parliament (1988-99); Member of the Secretariat of the Convention on the Future of Europe (2002-03); Head of Unit in the Legal Service of the European Parliament (1999-2010); Director of Institutional and Parliamentary Affairs in the Legal Service of the European Parliament (2010-16); Judge at the General Court since 19 September 2016.

Jesper Svenningsen
Jesper Svenningsen

Born 1966; study of law (Candidatus juris, University of Aarhus, 1989); trainee lawyer with the Legal Adviser to the Danish Government (1989-91); Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice of the European Communities in the Chambers of Advocate General Gulmann (1991-93); admitted to the bar in Denmark (1993); lawyer with the Legal Adviser to the Danish Government (1993-95); Lecturer in European law at the University of Copenhagen; Senior Lecturer at the European Institute of Public Administration (EIPA) (Luxembourg, 1995-97); lawyer at the Brussels bar (1997); Senior Lecturer, then Acting Director of EIPA (Luxembourg, 1997-99); administrator with the Legal Service of the Surveillance Authority of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) (1999-2000); Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice of the European Communities in the Chambers of Judge Gulmann (2003‑06), then of Judge Bay Larsen (2006-13); Judge at the Civil Service Tribunal from 7 October 2013 to 31 August 2016; Judge at the General Court since 19 September 2016.

Maria José Costeira
Maria José Costeira

Born 1967; graduated in law from the University of Coimbra (1991); postgraduate studies in intellectual property law at the University of Lisbon (2001); trainee lawyer (1991-92); Judicial Trainee (1992-95); Judge at courts of first instance (1995-97); Judge at the Commercial Court, Lisbon (1999-16); Judge at the Court of Appeal, Coimbra (2016); taught law at a number of Portuguese universities and at the Centre for Judicial Studies; Secretary-General (2012-15), then President (2015-16), of the Association of Portuguese Judges; Judge at the General Court since 19 September 2016.

Alexander Kornezov
Alexander Kornezov

Born 1978; graduated in law from St Kliment Ohridski University, Sofia (2002), and Master of Laws in European law from the College of Europe (Bruges, 2004); Doctor of Laws (2008); lawyer at the Brussels Bar (2004-06); Senior Lecturer in EU procedural law at the University of National and World Economy, Sofia (2008-12), and St Kliment Ohridski University, Sofia (2010-13); Associate Professor of EU Law and International Private Law at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (since 2014); Guest lecturer at the University of Cambridge and at Katholieke Universiteit Leuven; Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice of the European Union (2007-16); founding member and member of the board of directors of the Bulgarian Association for European Law; editor-in-chief of the European law journal Evropeiski praven pregled; author of numerous publications in the field of European law; Judge at the Civil Service Tribunal from 13 April 2016 to 31 August 2016; Judge at the General Court since 19 September 2016.

Marc Jaeger
Marc Jaeger

Born 1954; law degree from the Robert Schuman University of Strasbourg; studied at the College of Europe; admitted to the Luxembourg Bar (1981); attaché de justice delegated to the office of the Public Attorney of Luxembourg (1983); Judge at the Luxembourg District Court (1984); Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice of the European Communities (1986-96); President of the Institut Universitaire International Luxembourg (IUIL); Judge at the General Court since 11 July 1996; President of the General Court from 17 September 2007 to 26 September 2019.

Sten Frimodt Nielsen
Sten Frimodt Nielsen

Born 1963; graduated in law from Copenhagen University (1988); civil servant in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1988-91); tutor in international and European law at Copenhagen University (1988-91); Embassy Secretary at the Permanent Mission of Denmark to the United Nations in New York (1991-94); civil servant in the Legal Service of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1994-95); external lecturer at Copenhagen University (1995); Adviser, then Senior Adviser, in the Prime Minister's Office (1995-98); Minister Counsellor at the Permanent Representation of Denmark to the European Union (1998-2001); Special Adviser for legal issues in the Prime Minister's Office (2001-02); Head of Department and Legal Counsel in the Prime Minister's Office (March 2002 to July 2004); Assistant Secretary of State and Legal Counsel in the Prime Minister's Office (August 2004 to August 2007); Judge at the General Court since 17 September 2007.

Juraj Schwarcz
Juraj Schwarcz

Born 1952; Doctor of Law (Comenius University, Bratislava, 1979); company lawyer (1975-90); Registrar responsible for the commercial register at the City Court, Košice (1991); Judge at the City Court, Košice (January to October 1992); Judge and President of Chamber at the Regional Court, Košice (November 1992 to 2009); temporary Judge at the Supreme Court of the Slovak Republic, Commercial Law Division (October 2004 to September 2005); Head of the Commercial Law Division at the Regional Court, Košice (October 2005 to September 2009); external member of the Commercial and Business Law Department at Pavol Josef Šafárik University, Košice (1997-2009); external member of the teaching staff of the Judicial Academy (2005-09); Judge at the General Court since 7 October 2009.

Dimitrios Gratsias
Dimitrios Gratsias

Born 1957; graduated in law from the University of Athens (1980); awarded DEA (diploma of advanced studies) in public law by the University of Paris I, Panthéon-Sorbonne (1981); awarded diploma by the University Centre for Community and European Studies (University of Paris I) (1982); Junior Officer of the Council of State (1985-92); Junior Member of the Council of State (1992-2005); Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice of the European Communities (1994-96); Supplementary Member of the Superior Special Court of Greece (1998 and 1999); Member of the Council of State (2005); Member of the Special Court for Actions against Judges (2006); Member of the Supreme Council for Administrative Justice (2008); Inspector of Administrative Courts (2009-10); Judge at the General Court since 25 October 2010.

Mariyana Kancheva
Mariyana Kancheva

Born 1958; degree in law at the University of Sofia; post-master’s degree in European law at the Institute for European Studies, Free University of Brussels; specialisation in economic law and intellectual property law; Trainee judge at the Regional Court, Sofia (1985-86); Legal adviser (1986-88); Lawyer at the Sofia bar (1988-92); Director-General of the Services Office for the Diplomatic Corps at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1992-94); pursuit of the profession of lawyer in Sofia (1994-2011) and Brussels (2007-11); Arbitrator in Sofia for the resolution of commercial disputes; participation in the drafting of various legislative texts as legal adviser to the Bulgarian parliament; Judge at the General Court since 19 September 2011.

Eugène Buttigieg
Eugène Buttigieg

Born 1961; Doctor of Laws, University of Malta; Master of Laws in European Legal Studies, University of Exeter; Ph.D. in Competition Law, University of London; Legal Officer at the Ministry of Justice (1987-1990); Senior Legal Officer at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1990-1994); Member of the Copyright Board (1994-2005); Legal Reviser at the Ministry of Justice and Local Government (2001-2002); Board Member of the Malta Resources Authority (2001-2009); Legal Consultant in the field of EU law from 1994, Legal Advisor to the Ministry of Finance, the Economy and Investment on consumer and competition law (2000-2010), Legal Advisor to the Office of the Prime Minister on consumer affairs and competition (2010-2011), Legal Consultant with the Malta Competition and Consumer Affairs Authority (2012); Lecturer (1994-2001), Senior Lecturer (2001-2006), subsequently Associate Professor (since 2007) and holder of the Jean Monnet Chair in EU Law (since 2009) at the University of Malta; author of numerous publications in the fields of competition law, consumer law, intellectual property and EU law; co-founder and vice-president of the Maltese Association for European Law; judge at the General Court since 8 October 2012.

Viktor Kreuschitz
Viktor Kreuschitz

Born 1952; Doctor of Laws of the University of Vienna (1981); Civil servant in the Federal Chancellery, Constitutional Affairs Department (1981-97); Adviser in the Legal Service of the European Commission (1997-2013); Judge at the General Court since 16 September 2013.

Lauri Madise
Lauri Madise

Born 1974; degrees in law (Universities of Tartu and Poitiers); Adviser in the Ministry of Justice (1995-99); Head of the Secretariat of the Constitutional Committee of the Estonian Parliament (1999-2000); Judge at the Court of Appeal, Tallinn (from 2002); Member of the Judges' Examination Commission (from 2005); participation in legislative work concerning constitutional law and administrative law; Judge at the General Court since 23 October 2013.

Constantinos Iliopoulos
Constantinos Iliopoulos

Born 1948; graduated in law from the University of Athens (1971); degree in economics (postgraduate studies) from the Athens University of Economics and Business (1974); admitted to the Athens Bar (1973); Doctor of Law, University of Hamburg (1984); lawyer (1973-2016); Professor of International and European Economic Law (2007-15) and Professor in the ‘Master in International and European Energy Law' programme (2015-16) of the Faculty of Law, University of Thrace; Assistant lecturer (1980-84), lecturer (1992-2006) and Visiting Professor (2015) at the Faculty of Law, University of Hamburg; member of the Hellenic Competition Commission (1992-2006); Legal adviser to the Minister for Economic Development and Energy (2007-09); Legal adviser appointed by the Government of the Republic of Cyprus (2002-03); member of the Board of the Centre of International and European Economic Law, Thessaloniki (2005-11); Treasurer (1987-2000) and Secretary-General (2000-16) of the Greek Association for European Law; founding member and Secretary-General of the Greek Association for Energy Law (2012-16); Vice-President of the Greek-German Lawyers Association (Hamburg) (1987-2016); Secretary-General of the Greek-German Lawyers Association (Athens) (1990-2016); author of numerous publications; Judge at the General Court since 13 April 2016.

Virgilijus Valančius
Virgilijus Valančius

Born 1963; graduated in law from the University of Vilnius (1986); Doctor of Law (2000); habilitation procedure (2008); Public Prosecutor (1986-90); Judge (1991-94) and Vice-President (1993-94) of the Vilnius City District Court; Judge and President of the Civil Chamber (1995-2002) of the Court of Appeal of Lithuania; Judge (2002-13) and President (2002-08) of the Supreme Administrative Court of Lithuania; lecturer at the University of Vilnius (1997) and at Mykolas Romeris University (1998-2000); Associate Professor (2000-08), Head of the Civil Procedure Department (2002-06) and Professor (since 2008) at Mykolas Romeris University; President of the European Association of Judges (EAJ) (2006-08); Vice-President of the International Association of Judges (IAJ) (2006-14); member of the Consultative Council of European Judges (CCJE) (2000-14); member of the Board of the Association of the Councils of State and Supreme Administrative Jurisdictions of the European Union (ACA-Europe) (2010-13); member of the Board of Trustees of the Academy of European Law (ERA) (2008-11); Judge at the General Court since 13 April 2016.

Zoltán Csehi
Zoltán Csehi

Born 1965; graduated from Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, in law (1990) and history of art (1992) and Master of Laws from the University of Heidelberg (1991); Doctor of Law (2004); lawyer at the Budapest Bar (1995-2016); Associate Professor of Law (1991-2005) and Professor of Law (2005-16) at Eötvös Loránd University; Head of the Department of Commercial Law (2007-13), then Head of the Department of Private and Commercial Law and Professor (2013-16), at the Péter Pázmány Catholic University, Budapest; Visiting Professor at the Catholic University of Lyon (2013-16); Arbitrator at the Permanent Arbitration Court attached to the Hungarian Stock Exchange and ad hoc arbitrator (2004-16); Judge at the General Court since 13 April 2016.

 

Nina Półtorak
Nina Półtorak

Born 1971; graduated in law from the Jagiellonian University in Kraków (1995); Doctor of Law (2001); habilitated Doctor in Legal Science (2011); Associate Professor (2003-13), then Professor (since 2013), in the EU Law Department at the Jagiellonian University; Director of Postgraduate Study Programmes in EU law at the Jagiellonian University (2006-13); Visiting scholar at the University of Oxford (1998) and visiting fellow at the European University Institute, Florence (2005); admitted to the Kraków Bar (2000); legal counsel (2000-12); Judge at the Regional Administrative Court, Kraków (2012-16); seconded to the Supreme Administrative Court of the Republic of Poland (2014-16); Director of the EU Law Department, Supreme Administrative Court (2013-16); author of numerous publications on European law; Judge at the General Court since 13 April 2016.

Fredrik Schalin
Fredrik Schalin

Born 1964; law degree from the University of Stockholm (1991) and University of Paris I, Panthéon-Sorbonne (1990 and 1994); called to the Stockholm Bar (2008); Legal Secretary at the Södertälje District Court and the Svea Court of Appeal (1991-93 and 1994-95); Judge at the Gotland and Norrtälje District Courts (1995-96); Judge at the Svea Court of Appeal (1996-97); Assistant Secretary of the Parliamentary Committee on Finance (1997-98); Legal Adviser for European Affairs at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1999); Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice of the European Union (1998 and 1999-2006); lawyer, then advocate (2006-08); Judge (2009-16) and President of Chamber (2012-15) at the Södertörn District Court; Lecturer at the University of Stockholm (2006-08); Lecturer at the Swedish Judicial Training Academy (2011-16); Judge at the General Court since 8 June 2016.

Inga Reine
Inga Reine

Born 1975; graduated in law from the University of Latvia (1996); master’s degree at the European Inter-University Centre for Human Rights and Democratisation (EIUC) (Italy, 1998); lawyer at the Latvian National Human Rights Office (1995-99); adviser to the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) (mission in Kosovo (1999-2002) and mission in Montenegro (2002-03)); lawyer at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and representative of the government at international human-rights organisations (2003-12); head of division (2012-15) and legal adviser (2012-16) at the Permanent Representation of Latvia to the European Union; member of the Steering Committee for Human Rights (CDDH) of the Council of Europe (2003-12); Judge at the General Court since 8 June 2016.

René Barents
René Barents

Born 1951; graduated in law, specialisation in economics (Erasmus University Rotterdam, 1973); Doctor of Laws (University of Utrecht, 1981); researcher in European law and international economic law (1973-74) and lecturer in European law and economic law at the Europa Institute of the University of Utrecht (1974-79) and at the University of Leiden (1979-81); Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice of the European Communities (1981-86); Head of the Employee Rights Section in the Personnel Division of the Court of Justice of the European Communities (1986-87); Member of the Legal Service of the Commission of the European Communities (1987-91); Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice of the European Communities (1991-2000); Head of Division (2000-09), then Director (2009-11), in the Research and Documentation Directorate of the Court of Justice of the European Union; Professor (1988-2003) and Honorary Professor (since 2003) in European law at the University of Maastricht; Adviser to the Regional Court of Appeal, ’s-Hertogenbosch (1993-2011); Member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (since 1993); numerous publications on European law; Judge at the Civil Service Tribunal from 6 October 2011 to 31 August 2016; Judge at the General Court since 19 September 2016.

Paul Nihoul
Paul Nihoul

Born 1963; graduated in law from the Université catholique de Louvain (1988); Master of Laws, Harvard University (1989); Doctor of Laws (1998); graduated in philology (1984) and philosophy (1984) from the Université catholique de Louvain; Admitted to the New York Bar (1990); Attorney and Counselor at Law (New York, 1990-1991); Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice of the European Communities (1991-1995); researcher at the Université catholique de Louvain (1995-1999); Professor at the University of Groningen (1999-2001), then at the Université catholique de Louvain (2001-2016); at that university, Director of the Centre for Consumer Law (2001-2016), President of the organisation for academic staff (2004-2006) and President of the Institute of Legal Studies (2012-2015); elected as a member of the ‘Academia Europaea’ in 2010; Visiting Professor at a number of universities, in particular at Paris Dauphine University (2013-2016); Fulbright scholar, American University (Washington DC, 2010-2011); Jean Monnet Chair awarded by the European Research Council (1999-2009); Chair of the Academic Society for Competition Law (2013-2016); chief editor of a number of legal journals; Judge at the General Court since 19 September 2016.

Barna Berke
Barna Berke

Born 1966; graduated in law from Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest (1990); Master of Laws from the University of Stockholm (1995); lawyer at the Budapest bar; Legal Adviser at the Hungarian Parliament during the process for Hungary’s accession to the European Union (1994-96 and 2002-04); Legal Secretary to the President of the Hungarian Constitutional Court (1997-2000); Vice-President of the Competition Authority, then Chairman of the Competition Council (2000-02); arbitrator at the Permanent Court of Arbitration of the Financial and Capital Markets (2008-14); lecturer (1990-94); senior lecturer (1995-99) and then associate senior lecturer (2003-16) at Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest; State Secretary for European and International Judicial Cooperation at the Ministry of Justice (2014-16); Judge at the General Court since 19 September 2016.

Ulf Öberg
Ulf Öberg

Born 1966; graduated in law from the University of Stockholm (1991); diploma in French-English legal translation at University of Paris II, Panthéon-Assas (1991); diploma in higher specialised studies at University of Paris I, Panthéon-Sorbonne (1992); diploma at the Institut d’études politiques, Paris (1993); researcher at the Swedish Defence Research Agency (1992 and 1994); participated in the training programme for Swedish civil servants (1993-94); Legal Adviser for European Affairs at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1994-95); Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice of the European Communities (1995-2000); Lecturer at the University of Stockholm (2000-16); lawyer (2001-06), then advocate (2006-16); Judge at the General Court since 19 September 2016.

Octavia Spineanu-Matei
Octavia Spineanu-Matei

Born 1967; graduated in law from Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, Iasi (1990); Doctor of Laws (1999); Judge at the Court of First Instance, Sector 4, Bucharest (1991-96); Judge (1996-99) and President of Section (1997-99) at the District Court, Bucharest; Judge (1999-2005) and President of Section (1999-2003) at the Court of Appeal, Bucharest; Member of the Enlarged Board of Appeal of the European Patent Office (2006-16); Instructor at and then Director of the National Institute of the Magistracy (2011-16); Judge at the High Court of Cassation and Justice of Romania (2006-16); Member of the Scientific Council of the National Institute of the Magistracy and of the Board of Governors of the National School for Registrars (2011-16); elected board member of the Doctoral School of the University of Bucharest (2012-16); Judge at the General Court since 19 September 2016.

Krystyna Kowalik-Bańczyk
Krystyna Kowalik-Bańczyk

Born 1976; graduated in law from the University of Gdańsk (1999); diploma of advanced studies at the University of Social Sciences of Toulouse (2000); Master of Laws in European law at the College of Europe (2002); Doctor of Laws (2004); Lecturer in EU law at Gdańsk University of Technology (2010-16); Senior Lecturer (2006-14), then Associate Professor (2014-16), at the Institute for Legal Studies of the Polish Academy of Sciences; co-editorship of and participation in a number of legal periodicals; author of numerous publications; Judge at the General Court since 19 September 2016.

Colm Mac Eochaidh
Colm Mac Eochaidh

Born 1963; graduated in law from University College Dublin, National University of Ireland (1984); Barrister, Honorable Society of King’s Inns, Dublin (1987); European Officer at the Law Society, Chancery Lane, London (1988-90); Representative of the Law Society of England and Wales and the Law Society of Scotland in Brussels (1990-93); Barrister (1993-2009) and Senior Counsel (2009-12); lecturer in competition law at the Honorable Society of King’s Inns, Dublin (1993-99); lecturer at the EU-China Law School (2008-12); Judge (2012-17), in charge of the Immigration and Asylum Division (2014-17), at the High Court (Ireland); Judge at the General Court since 8 June 2017.

Geert De Baere
Geert De Baere

Born 1979; lic. iuris (University of Antwerp, 2002); LL.M. (2003) and PhD (2007) (King’s College, University of Cambridge); Visiting Research Fellow at Columbia Law School (2005); Postdoctoral Research Associate at the University of Antwerp (2007-09); Visiting Professor (2009), subsequently Assistant Professor (2010-14) and Associate Professor (from 2015) in EU law and international law at the University of Leuven (KU Leuven); Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice of the European Union in the chambers of Advocate General Sharpston (2007-09), subsequently of Judge Prechal (2016-17); Judge at the General Court since 4 October 2017.

Ramona Frendo
Ramona Frendo

Born 1971; graduated in law and Doctor of Laws at the University of Malta (1995); M.Phil. in criminology at the University of Cambridge (1996); postgraduate studies in European law at King’s College London (2018); lawyer at the Maltese bar (1996-2019); legal expert at the courts of Valletta, Malta (1997-2019); member of the panel of national arbitrators of Malta (2006-19); legal expert, Malta Insurance Association (2006-19); member of the Employment Commission of Malta (2009-19); legal adviser, Ministry of Social Protection (1997-98); member of the National Family Commission (2012-13); member of the Commission for the Holistic Reform of the Justice System (2013); member of the Law Commission (2014-16); Chairwoman of the Visa Working Party during the Maltese Presidency of the Council of the European Union (2016-17); Judge at the General Court since 20 March 2019.

Tuula Riitta Pynnä
Tuula Riitta Pynnä

Born 1958; graduated in law from the University of Turku (Master of Laws degree, 1981); judicial training programme at the District Court, Ulvila (1984); Master of Laws of Trier University (1993); Master of European Legal Studies at the European Institute of Public Administration (1994); lecturer at the University of Turku (1981-1982); Judge at the District Court, Pori (1982-1983); Section Head of the Population Office (1983-1985); Judge at the District Court, Tampere and Pirkanmaa (1985-1995); Legal Secretary at the Supreme Court of Finland (1995); Head of Unit for EU Litigation, Legal Adviser and Agent of the government before the Court of Justice of the European Union, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Head of the Finnish delegation on the Council Working Party on the ‘Court of Justice’ (1996-2005); member of the ‘Friends of the Presidency’ Group with regard to the reform of the Community judicial system in the Treaty of Nice; Judge at the Supreme Administrative Court of Finland (2005-2012); Judge at the Supreme Court of Finland (2012-2019); member of the Helsinki Stock Exchange Disciplinary Committee (2015-2019); member, then Chairwoman, of the Helsinki Bar Examination Committee (2011-2019); Judge at the General Court since 26 September 2019.

Laurent Truchot
Laurent Truchot

Born 1962; graduate of the Institute of Political Studies in Paris (1984); former student of the National School for the Judiciary (1986-1988); Judge at the Regional Court, Marseilles (1988-1990); Law Officer in the Directorate for Civil Affairs and the Legal Professions at the Ministry of Justice (1990-1992); Deputy Section Head, then Section Head, in the Directorate-General for Competition, Consumption and the Combating of Fraud at the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Finance and Industry (1992-1994); Technical Adviser to the Minister for Justice (1994-1995); Judge at the Regional Court, Nîmes (1995-1996); Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice of the European Union in the Chambers of Advocate General Léger (1996-2001); Auxiliary Judge at the Court of Cassation (2001-2007); Judge at the General Court (2007-2013, President of Chamber from 2010 to 2013); Judge at the Court of Cassation (2013-2019); Judge at the General Court since 26 September 2019.

Johannes Christoph Laitenberger
Johannes Christoph Laitenberger

Born 1964; studied law at the University of Bonn (Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn); first State examination in law (1990); Legal Adviser in the administrative department of the German Bundestag (1991); articled law clerk in the Cologne Higher Regional Court district (1991-1994); second State examination in law (1994); lecturer and researcher at the University of Bonn (1991-1995); lawyer at the Cologne Bar and legal counsel of a federation of undertakings (1996); Adviser at the Directorate for Administration and Protocol of the General Secretariat of the Council of the European Union (1996-1999); Rapporteur in the Directorate-General for Competition of the European Commission (1999); Member of Cabinet (1999-2003), then Head of Cabinet (2003-2004), of the European Commissioner Ms Viviane Reding; Member of Cabinet of the President of the Commission of the European Communities, Mr José Manuel Barroso (2004-2005); Spokesman and Head of the Spokesperson’s Service of the European Commission (2005-2009); Head of Cabinet of the President of the European Commission, Mr José Manuel Barroso (2009-2014); Deputy Director-General of the Legal Service of the European Commission (2014-2015); Director-General of the Directorate-General for Competition of the European Commission (2015-2019); Judge at the General Court since 26 September 2019.

Roberto Mastroianni
Roberto Mastroianni

Born 1964; law degree from the University of Florence (1987); Doctor of Laws of the University of Bologna (1992); Master of Laws of the Dickinson School of Law, Pennsylvania (1990); postdoctoral studies at the University of Geneva (1992-1993); postdoctoral studies at the University of Amsterdam (1993-1994); researcher in international law at the University of Florence (1992-1997); Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice of the European Union in the Chambers of Advocates General Giuseppe Tesauro and Antonio Saggio (1997-2000); Professor of EU law at the University of Naples Federico II (2000-2019); Visiting Professor of EU law and of European litigation at the University of Paris II, Panthéon-Assas (2011-2013); Professor of EU law at the Luiss Guido Carli University, Rome (2013-2017); Adviser to the Italian Government for legislative affairs in the Department of European Affairs (2015-2018); lawyer qualified to plead before superior courts (1993-2019); Professor of comparative competition law at the Sturm College of Law of the University of Denver (2015-2019); member of the Board of Governors of the Italian Society of International Law (SIDI) (20I3-2015) and of the Italian Association of EU Law Scholars (AISDUE) (2018-2019); author of a wide range of publications; Judge at the General Court since 26 September 2019.

José Martín y Pérez de Nanclares
José Martín y Pérez de Nanclares

Born 1965; law degree from the University of Salamanca (1983-1988); studies in constitutional law at the University of Cologne (1988-1989); Master of European Law of the University of Saarbrücken (1991); Doctor of Law of the Universities of Saarbrücken (1994) and Salamanca (1994); senior lecturer (1993-1996) and professor of international law (1996-2001) at the University of La Rioja; holder of the Chair of Public International Law and of the Jean Monnet Chair of EU Law at the University of La Rioja (2001-2009); holder of the Chair of Public International Law at the University of Salamanca (2009-2012 and 2018); Vice-Rector for International Relations (2004-2008), Vice-Rector for Research (1996-2000) and Secretary General (1996) of the University of La Rioja; Doctor honoris Causa of the University of Piura, Peru (2009); Director of the Department of International Legal Affairs of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation of the Spanish Government (2012-2018); Director of the Office of the Presidency of the Spanish Council of State (2018-2019); member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration (2018-2019); author of numerous publications; Judge at the General Court since 26 September 2019.

Ornella Porchia
Ornella Porchia

Born 1966; degree in law (1991); Doctor of Laws of the Bocconi University in Milan (1996); Professor of EU Law at the University of Turin; member of the Turin Bar (1994); Assistant Professor (1998-2002) and Associate Professor of International Law at the University of Turin (2002-2007); member of the Research Department of the Italian Constitutional Court (2010-2014); Legal Adviser to the Permanent Representation of Italy to the European Union (2014-2019); author of numerous publications; Judge at the General Court since 26 September 2019.

Gerhard Hesse
Gerhard Hesse

Born 1970; graduated in law from the University of Vienna (1993); Doctor of Laws of the University of Vienna (2002); member of the Federal Chancellery’s Department of European Affairs (1994-1995); member, then head of department, in the Federal Chancellery’s Legal Service (1995-2000); legal adviser in the Chamber of Labour (2000-2002); member, then head of department, in the Federal Chancellery’s Legal Service (2002-2007); legal adviser in the Cabinet of the Federal Chancellery (2007-2010); Director-General of the Federal Chancellery’s Legal Service (2010-2017); Director-General of the Legal Service of the Federal Ministry of Constitutional Affairs, Reforms, Deregulation and Justice (2017-2019); member of the government’s Data Protection Council (2010-2019); Chairman of the board of trustees of the Austrian National Library (2017-2019); author of numerous publications; Judge at the General Court since 26 September 2019.

Miguel Sampol Pucurull
Miguel Sampol Pucurull

Born 1974; degree in law and business administration from the Comillas Pontifical University — ICADE (1998); Abogado del Estado responsible for representing the State before national courts (2002-2005); Abogado del Estado in the Legal Service of the Ministry of Culture (2005-2006); member of the Legal Service of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs with regard to the Court of Justice of the European Union (2006-2007); Abogado del Estado/Legal Adviser to the Spanish Permanent Representation to the European Union (2007-2014); Head Abogado del Estado of the State Legal Service responsible for cases before the Court of Justice of the European Union and Deputy Director-General of EU and International Affairs at the Abogacía General del Estado (Ministry of Justice) (2014-2019); member of the board of directors of a number of state-owned undertakings (2014-2019); author of numerous publications; Judge at the General Court since 26 September 2019.

Mirela Stancu
Mirela Stancu

Born 1974; graduated in law from the University of Bucharest (1998); Doctor of Laws of the University of Bucharest (2009); lawyer at the Bucharest Bar (1999-2002); lecturer (2002-2018), then, from 2018, senior lecturer in procedural law at the University of Bucharest; trainer at the National Institute of Magistracy (2007-2018); Judge at the Court of First Instance, Bucharest (2004-2009); Judge at the Tribunal of Bucharest (2009-2019); Judge on secondment to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2005); Lawyer-administrator at the Court of Justice of the European Union in the Chambers of Judge Toader (2011-2014); Director for European Affairs, International Relations and Programmes of the Superior Council of Magistracy (2015-2018); author of numerous publications; Judge at the General Court since 26 September 2019.

Petra Škvařilová-Pelzl
Petra Škvařilová-Pelzl

Born 1975; legal studies in the Czech Republic and in Germany (Magister iuris, Charles University, Prague, 1999), Doctor of Laws (University of Hamburg, 2004); interpreting qualification for German from the State Language School of Prague (1995); research associate in the Commercial, Maritime, and Business Law Department at the University of Hamburg; successful in a competition of the European institutions for Czech lawyers (2004); official in the Library, Research and Documentation Directorate-General of the Court of Justice of the European Union (2004-2019); aide to the Director-General (2010-2016); Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice of the European Union in the Chambers of Judge Berger (2017-2018); lecturer in EU law at the Austrian Federal Academy of Public Administration in Vienna; regular appearances at the biennial German-Czech Law Festival; author of several publications, in particular in the areas of EU law and comparative law; Judge at the General Court since 26 September 2019.

Iko Nõmm
Iko Nõmm

Born 1977; Doctor of Laws of the University of Tartu (2013); Adviser to the Court of Appeal, Tallinn (2001-2002); trainee judge at the Court of First Instance, Harju (2002); Judge at the Court of First Instance, Harju (2002-2007); Judge at the Court of Appeal, Tallinn (2007-2019); trainee judge at the Supreme Court of Estonia (2015-2016); national judge seconded to the Court of Justice of the European Union (2017-2018); lecturer at the University of Tartu (2014-2019); teacher at the Supreme Court of Estonia (2015-2019); trainer at the Estonian Bar Association (2015-2019); member of the Judge Assessment Commission (2018-2019); member of the Professional Suitability Assessment Committee of the Estonian Bar (2015-2019); Judge at the General Court since 26 September 2019.

Gabriele Steinfatt
Gabriele Steinfatt

Born 1977; studies in Saarbrücken and Strasbourg; law degree from the Robert Schuman University of Strasbourg (master’s degree in private law and certificate in European law, 2000); State examinations in Saarbrücken (2002 and 2005); postgraduate studies at the Institute of European Studies of Saarland University (2002-2003); Doctor of Laws of Saarland University (2011); Judge at the Administrative Court, Bremen (2005-2018); Judge at the Higher Administrative Court, Bremen (2018-2019); member of the Disciplinary Appeals Court for Judges (2018-2019); alternate member of the Disciplinary Appeals Court for Engineers (2018-2019); lecturer at Saarland University and the University of Bremen; author of several legal publications, in particular on European law; Judge at the General Court since 26 September 2019.

Rimvydas Norkus
Rimvydas Norkus

Born 1979; master’s degree in law from the University of Vilnius (2001); Doctor of Laws of Mykolas Romeris University (2005); studies at the Swiss Institute of Comparative Law (Institut suisse de droit comparé (ISDC)) and at the universities of Bonn and Vilnius (2002-2006); Law clerk at the Court of Appeal of Lithuania (1999-2000); Adviser to the President of the Court of Appeal of Lithuania (2000-2003); Director of the Judicial Practice Department of the Supreme Administrative Court of Lithuania (2003-2009); Lawyer-linguist at the European Parliament (2009-2010); Director of the Legal Research Department of the Supreme Court of Lithuania (2010-2012); Judge at the Court of Appeal of Lithuania (2012-2013); Judge at the Supreme Court of Lithuania (2013-2014); President of the Supreme Court of Lithuania (2014-2019); Professor at the Institute of Private Law at Mykolas Romeris University (2012-2019); Associate Professor at Mykolas Romeris University (2007-2008); President of the Judicial Council of Lithuania (2016-2018); author of numerous publications; Judge at the General Court since 26 September 2019.

Tamara Perišin
Tamara Perišin

Born 1979; graduated in law from the University of Zagreb (2002); Master of Laws of the University of Oxford (2003); Doctor of Laws of the University of Zagreb (2007); Fulbright scholar at Georgetown University and at the University of Michigan (2005-2006); course in the scholarship of teaching and learning at the Central European University (2007-2008); researcher at the Asser Institute (2004), at the Max Planck Institute (2007-2008) and at Harvard Law School (2014); called to the Croatian Bar (2009); Professor of EU Law, holder of a Jean Monnet Chair and coordinator of the Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence at the University of Zagreb (2002-2019); Visiting Professor at Harvard University (2015-2016); member of the negotiating team for the accession of Croatia to the European Union (2005-2011); responsible for providing training on EU law to officials and diplomats at the National Institute of Public Administration and at the Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs (2011-2012); responsible for providing training on EU law to judges and prosecutors at the Judicial Academy and at Zagreb Municipal Court (2012-2013); responsible for providing training on EU law for the Croatian Bar Association (2015); Special Adviser to the Ministry of Science and Education (2017-2019); editor-in-chief of a journal on EU law; author of numerous publications; Judge at the General Court since 26 September 2019.

Emmanuel Coulon
Emmanuel Coulon

Born 1968; law studies (Université Panthéon-Assas, Paris); management studies (Université Paris Dauphine); College of Europe (1992); entrance examination for the Centre régional de formation à la profession d'avocat (regional training centre for the bar), Paris; certificate of admission to the Brussels Bar; practice as a lawyer in Brussels; successful candidate in an open competition for the Commission of the European Communities; Legal Secretary at the Court of First Instance (Chambers of the Presidents Mr Saggio (1996-98) and Mr Vesterdorf (1998-2002)); Head of Chambers of the President of the Court of First Instance (2003-05); Registrar of the General Court since 6 October 2005.