Born 1944; degree in law and master's degree in political economy at the University of Coimbra; Doctor in International Economics (University of Paris I - Panthéon Sorbonne); compulsory military service performed in the Ministry for the Navy (Justice Department, 1969-72); Professor at the Catholic University and the New University of Lisbon; formerly Professor at the University of Coimbra and at Lusíada University, Lisbon (Director of the Institute for European Studies); Member of the Portuguese Government (1980-83): State Secretary for Home Affairs, State Secretary in the Prime Minister's Office and State Secretary for European Affairs; Deputy in the Portuguese Parliament, Vice-President of the Christian-Democrat Group; Advocate General at the Court of Justice (1986-88); President of the Court of First Instance of the European Communities (1989-95); lawyer at the Lisbon bar, specialising in European and competition law (1996-2012); member of the Working Party on the Future of the European Communities' Court System - ‘Due Group' (2000); Chairman of the Disciplinary Board of the European Commission (2003-07); President of the Portuguese Association of European Law (since 1999); Judge at the Court of Justice from 8 October 2012 to 8 October 2018.
Born 1928; Barrister; Senior Counsel; Specialist in constitutional and commercial law; Judge at the High Court; Chairman of the General Council of the Bar of Ireland; Bencher of King's Inns; Chairman of the Educational Committee Council of King's Inns; Judge at the Court of first Instance from 25 September 1989 to 10 January 1996; died on 3 January 2018.
Born 1934; Judge, Naples District Court; Adviser to the Court of Appeal, Rome, and subsequently the Court of Cassation; attached to the Ufficio Legislativo del Ministerio di Grazia e Giustizia; Chairman of the General Committee in the Diplomatic Conference which adopted the Lugano Convention; Legal Secretary to the Italian Advocate General at the Court of Justice; Professor at the Scuola Superiore della Pubblica Amministrazione, Rome; Judge at the Court of First Instance from 25 September 1989 to 17 September 1995; President of the Court of First Instance from 18 September 1995 to 4 March 1998; Advocate General at the Court of Justice from 5 March 1998 to 6 October 2000; died on 26 January 2010.
Born on 14 November 1934; British national; Advocate (Scotland); Queen's Counsel (Scotland); Clerk, and subsequently Treasurer, of the Faculty of Advocates; President of the Consultative Committee of the Bars and Law Societies of the European Community; Salvesen Professor of European Institutions and Director of the Europa Institute, University of Edinburgh; Special Adviser to the House of Lords Select Committee on the European Communities; Honorary Bencher, Gray's Inn, London; Judge at the Court of First Instance from 25 September 1989 to 9 March 1992; Judge at the Court of Justice from 10 March 1992 to 7 January 2004.
Born 1938; Magistrate, Land Nordrhein-Westfalen, Official at the Ministry of Justice (Department of Community Law and Human Rights); Assistant in the officie of the Danish member of the Commission and subsequently penalties in the Federal Ministry of Justice; Principal of the Minister's Officie, final post; Director (Ministerialdirigent) of an under-department dealing with criminal law; Judge at the Court of First Instance from 25 September 1989 to 6 February 1997.
Born 1938; Greek national; Member of the Simvoulio tis Epikratias (Council of State) and subsequently State Counsellor; Member of the Anotato Idiko Dikastirio (Superior Special Court) and of the Dikastiria Simaton (Trade Mark Courts); Adviser to the Government on the application of Community law; Professor of Community Law at the National School of Public Administration and the Adult Education Institute; Judge at the Court of First Instance from 25 September 1989 to 18 September 1992.
Born 1939; university studies in the Faculties of Law and Economics at Montpellier and Paris; Doctor of Laws (1964); Lawyer (1964); Lawyer-advocate (1967); General Administrator at the Ministry of Labour and Social Security; Member (1978-89), then President (1988-89), of the Economic and Social Council; Director of the Société nationale de crédit et d'investissement and of the Société européenne des satellites (until 1989); Member (1993-95), then Chairman of the Board (1995-2004), of the International University Institute of Luxembourg; Lecturer at the University of Luxembourg; Government Representative on the European Social Fund Committee, the Advisory Committee on Freedom of Movement for Workers and the Administrative Board of the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (until 1989); Judge at the Court of First Instance from 25 September 1989 to 11 July 1996; Judge at the Court of Justice from 12 July 1996 to 14 January 2008.
Born 1944; Executive Secretary, D. Hudig & Co., Insurance Broker, and subsequently Executive Secetary with Granaria B.V.; Judge, Arrondissementsrechtsbank (District Court), Rotterdam; Member of the Court of Justice of the Dutch Antilles; Cantonal Judge, Rotterdam; Vice-President, Arrondissementsrechtsbank Rottedam; Judge at the Court of First Instance from 25 September 1989 to 17 September 1998.
Born 1945; Lawyer-linguist at the Court of Justice; Administrator in the Ministry of Justice; Examining Magistrate; Legal Attaché in the Permanent Representation of Denmark to the European Communities; Temporary Judge at the Østre Landsret (Court of Appeal); Head of the Constitutional and Administrative Law Division in the Ministry of Justice; Director of a department in the Ministry of Justice; University Lecturer; Member of the Steering Committee on Human Rights at the Council of Europe (CDDH), and subsequently Member of the Bureau of the CDDH; in 2004 Member of the "Ad-hoc committee on judicial training" at the Academy of European Law, Trier (Germany); Judge at the Court of First Instance since 25 September 1989; President of the Court of First Instance from 4 March 1998 to 17 September 2007.
Born 1946; Abogado del Estado (at Jaén and Granada); Registrar to the Economic and Administrative Court of Jaén, and subsequently of Cordoba; Member of the Bar (Jaén and Granada); Head of the Spanish State Legal Service for cases before the Court of Justice of the European Communities; Head of the Spanish delegation in the working group created at the Council of the European Communities with a view to establishing the Court of First Instance of the European Communities; Judge at the Court of First Instance from 25 September 1989 to 17 September 2007.
Born 1948; Inspector at the Treasury; Junior Member and subsequently Member of the Conseil d'État; Legal Adviser to several ministers; Lecturer in a number of French professional colleges and institutes of heigher education; Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice; Head of Legal Department, Crédit Lyonnais; President of the Association Européenne pour le Droit Bancaire et Financier (AEDBF); Judge at the Court of First Instance from 25 September 1989 to 17 September 1995; died on 9 September 2020.
Born 1954; lic.iuris, Ph.D. in Law (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven); Master of Laws, Master in Public Administration (Harvard University); Lecturer (1979-83), subsequently Professor of European Law, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (since 1983); Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice (1984-85); Professor at the College of Europe, Bruges (1984-89); Member of the Brussels Bar (1986-89); Visiting Professor at the Harvard Law School (1989); Judge at the Court of First Instance of the European Communities from 25 September 1989 to 6 October 2003; Judge at the Court of Justice since 7 October 2003; Vice-President of the Court of Justice from 9 October 2012 to 8 October 2015; President of the Court of Justice since 8 October 2015.
Born 1946; Barrister, Middle Temple; Queen's Counsel, specialising in Commercial law, European Law and public Law; co-author of the three first editions of "Bellamy & Child, Common Market Law of Competition", Judge at the Court of First Instance from 10 March 1992 to 15 December 1999.
Born 1944; lawyer (Athens); legal secretary to Judges Chloros and Kakouris at the Court of Justice; professor of public and Community law (Athens); legal adviser; senior attaché at the Court of Auditors; Judge at the Court of First Instance from 18 September 1992 to 17 September 1998.
Born 1942; Doctor of Laws of the University of Helsinki; assistant lecturer in civil and commercial law at the University of Helsinki; Director of Legal Affairs and Commercial Policy at the Central Chamber of Commerce of Finland; Director-General of the Office for Consumer Protection, Finland; member of a number of committees and advisory bodies, inter alia Chairperson of the Supervisory Commission for the Marketing of Medicinal Products (1988-90), member of the Advisory Council on Consumer Affairs (1990-94), member of the Competition Council (1991-94) and member of the editorial board of the Nordic Intellectual Property Law Review (1982-90); Judge at the Court of First Instance from 18 January 1995 to 6 October 2009.
Born 1948; Doctor of Laws and Master of Sociology and Economics of the University of Vienna; Lecturer and Senior Lecturer at the Vienna School of Economics, the Faculty of Law of the University of Vienna and various other universities; Honorary Professor at the Faculty of Law of the University of Vienna; Ministerialrat and Head of Department at the Federal Chancellery; member of the Steering Committee on Legal Cooperation of the Council of Europe (CDCJ); representative ad litem before the Verfassungsgerichtshof (Constitutional Court) in proceedings for review of the constitutionality of federal laws; Coordinator responsible for the adaptation of Austrian federal law to Community law; Judge at the General Court since 18 January 1995 to 16 September 2013.
Born 1945; law graduate of the University of Lund; Legal Secretary and Judge at the District Court, Trollhättan (1971-74); Legal Secretary at the Court of Appeal, Stockholm (1974-75); Judge at the District Court, Stockholm (1975); Adviser on Legal and Administrative Matters to the President of the Court of Appeal, Stockholm (1975-78); Special Adviser at the Domstolverket (National Courts' Administration) (1977); Adviser in the office of the Chancellor of Justice (1979-80); Associate Judge at the Court of Appeal, Stockholm (1980-81); Legal Adviser at the Ministry of Trade (1981-82); Legal Adviser, and subsequently Director and Director-General for Legal Affairs, at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1982-95); title of Ambassador in 1992; Vice-President at the Swedish Market Court; responsible for legal and institutional issues at the time of the EEA negotiations (Deputy Chairperson, then Chairperson, of the EFTA Group) and at the time of the negotiations for the accession of the Kingdom of Sweden to the European Union; Judge at the Court of First Instance from 18 January 1995 to 6 October 2006; Judge at the Court of Justice from 7 October 2006 to 6 October 2011.
Born 1950; Secretary General to the First President of the Cour de CAssation (1988); Vice-President of the Tribunal de Grande Instance, Paris (1990); Head of the European and International Affairs of the Ministry of Justice (1991); Judge, Court of Appeal, Paris, and Associate Professor at Paris X, Nanterre University (1994); Judge at the Court of First Instance from 18 September 1995 to 19 September 2001.
Born 1950; Professor, Law Faculty, Coimbra, and the Law Faculty of the Catholic University, Oporto; Jean Monnet Chair; Course Director at the Academy of International Law, The Hague, (1984) and visiting professor at Paris I Law University (1995); Protuguese Government delegate to United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL); Judge at the Court of First Instance from 18 September 1995 to 31 March 2003.
Born 1944; called to the Bar of Ireland 1966; admitted also to the Bars of England & Wales, of Northern Ireland and of New South Wales; Practising barrister 1966-1996; admitted to the Inner Bar in Ireland (Senior Counsel) 1980 and New South Wales 1991; President of the Council of the Bars and Law Societies of the European Community (CCBE) 1985-1986; Visiting Fellow, Faculty of Law, University College Dublin; Fellow of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators; President of the Royal Zoological Society of Ireland 1987-90; Bencher of the Honorable Society of Kings Inns, Dublin; Honorary Bencher of Lincoln's Inn, London; Judge at the Court of First Instance from 10 January 1996 to 15 September 2008.
Born 1940; academic assistant at the University of Marburg; Doctor of Laws (University of Marburg); adviser, subsequently head of the section for private international law and, finally, head of a subdivision for civil law in the German Federal Ministry of Justice; member of the Governing Council of Unidroit (1993-1998); chairman of the commission of the Hague Conference on Private International Law to draw up the Convention concerning the protection of children (1996); honorary professor at the University of Trier (private international law, international procedural law, European law); member of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Max Planck Institute for Foreign Private and Private International Law in Hamburg since 2002; Judge at the Court of First Instance from 11 June 1997 to 17 September 2007; died on 24 October 2019.
Born 1938; Professor of International Law and holder of the Jean Monnet Chair of European Community law at the University of Bologna; Doctor honoris causa of the Carlos III University, Madrid; visiting professor at the Johns Hopkins University (Bologna Center), the Universities of St. Johns (New York), Georgetown, Paris-II, Georgia (Athens) and the Institut universitaire international (Luxembourg); co-ordinator of the European Business Law Pallas Program of the University of Nijmegen; member of the consultative committee of the Commission of the European Communities on public procurement; Under-Secretary of State for Trade and Industry during the Italian tenure of the Presidency of the Council; member of the working group of the European Community on the World Trade Organisation (WTO) and director of the 1997 session of The Hague Academy of International Law research centre devoted to the WTO; Judge at the Court of First Instance from 4 March 1998 to 3 May 2006; Advocate General at the Court of Justice from 4 May 2006 to 8 October 2018.
Born 1950; lawyer (1974-80); national expert with the Legal Service of the Commission of the European Communities, then Principal Administrator in Directorate General V (Employment, Industrial Relations, Social Affairs); Junior Officer, Junior Member and, since 1999, Member of the Greek Council of State; Associate Member of the Superior Special Court of Greece; Member of the Central Legislative Drafting Committee of Greece (1996-98); Director of the Legal Service in the General Secretariat of the Greek Government; Judge at the General Court from 17 September 1998 to 25 October 2010.
Born 1944; Justice at the Supreme Court of the Netherlands (1996); Judge and Vice-President at the College van Beroep voor het Bedrijfsleven (Administrative Court for Trade and Industry) (1986); Judge Substitute at the Court of Appeal for Social Security, and Substitute Member of the Administrative Court for Customs Tariff Matters; Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice of the European Communities (1980); Lecturer in European Law in the Law Faculty of the University of Groningen and Research Assistant at the University of Michigan Law School; Staff Member of the International Secretariat of the Amsterdam Chamber of Commerce (1970); Judge at the Court of First Instance from 17 September 1998 to 13 September 2010.
Born 1948; Cambridge University BA 1969, MA 1973 (Mechanical Sciences and Law); called to the English Bar in 1970, thereafter practising in London (1971-99) and also in Brussels (1979-99); called to the Irish Bar in 1981; appointed Queen's Counsel 1987; Bencher of the Middle Temple 1998; representative of the Bar of England and Wales at the Council of the Bars and Law Societies of the EU (CCBE) and Chairman of the CCBE's Permanent Delegation to the European Court of Justice (1995-99); governing board member of the World Trade Law Association and European Maritime Law Organisation (1993-2002); Judge at the General Court from 15 December 1999 to 7 October 2015.
Born 1954; State Counsellor (France); graduate of the École normale supérieure de Saint-Cloud and of the École nationale d'administration; Associate Professor of English (1979-1985); rapporteur and subsequently Commissaire du Gouvernement in proceedings before the judicial sections of the Conseil d'État (1988-1993): legal adviser in the Permanent Representation of the French Republic to the United Nations in New York (1993-1997); Legal Secretary in the Chambers of Judge Puissochet at the Court of Justice (1997-2001); Judge at the Court of First Instance from 19 September 2001 to 17 September 2007.
Born 1956; studied in Lisbon, Brussels and Strasbourg; member of the Bar in Portugal and Brussels; independent researcher at the Institut d'études européennes de l'Université libre de Bruxelles (Institute of European Studies, Free University of Brussels); Legal Secretary to the Portuguese Judge at the Court of Justice, Mr Moitinho de Almeida (1986-2000), then to the President of the Court of First Instance, Mr Vesterdorf (2000-03); Judge at the General Court from 31 March 2003 to 19 September 2016.
Born 1959; law degree (University of Liege, 1981); Research Fellow (Fonds national de la recherche scientifique, 1985-89); Legal Adviser to the Chamber of Representatives (1981-90); Doctor of Laws (University of Strasbourg, 1990); Professor (Universities of Liege and Strasbourg; College of Europe; Institut royal supérieur de Défense; Université Montesquieu, Bordeaux; Collège Michel Servet of the Universities of Paris; Faculties of Notre-Dame de la Paix, Namur); Special Representative of the Minister for Foreign Affairs (1995-99); Director of European Studies of the Royal Institute of International Relations (1998-2003); assesseur at the Council of State (2001-03); consultant to the European Commission (1990-2003); member of the Internet Observatory (2001-03); Judge at the General Court from 7 October 2003 to 19 September 2016.
Born 1936; Bachelor's degree (BA) in languages, Royal University of Malta (1955); Doctor of Laws (LLD) of the Royal University of Malta (1958); practising at the Malta Bar from 1959; Legal Adviser to the National Council of Women (1964-79); member of the Public Service Commission (1987-89); board member at Lombard Bank (Malta) Ltd, representing the government shareholding (1987-93); member of the Electoral Commission since 1993; examiner for doctoral theses in the Faculty of Laws of the Royal University of Malta; Member of the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) (2003-04); Judge at the General Court from 12 May 2004 to 22 March 2012.
Born 1946; Doctor of Laws of the University of Szeged (1971); Administrator at the Ministry of Labour (1971-74); Lecturer (1974-89), Dean of the Faculty of Law (1989-90), Vice-Rector (1992-97) at the University of Szeged; lawyer; member of the Presidium of the National Retirement Insurance Scheme; Vice-President of the European Institute of Social Security (1998-2002); member of the Scientific Council of the International Social Security Association; Judge at the Constitutional Court (1998-2004); Judge at the General Court from 12 May 2004 to 19 September 2016.
Born 1947; Magister Juris, University of Warsaw (1965-69); Researcher (Assistant Lecturer, Associate Professor, Professor) at the Institute of Legal Sciences of the Polish Academy of Sciences (1969-2004); Assistant Researcher at the Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Patent, Copyright and Competition Law, Munich (award from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, 1985-86); lawyer (1992-2000); Judge at the Supreme Administrative Court (2001-04); Judge at the General Court from 12 May 2004 to 19 September 2016; died 23 May 2018.
Born 1949; Doctor of Laws, assistant in economic law (before 1989), Dr Sc., Professor of Business Law (since 1993) at the Faculty of Law, Charles University, Prague; member of the Executive of the Securities Commission (1999-2002); lawyer; member of the Legislative Council of the Government of the Czech Republic (1998-2004); Judge at the General Court from 12 May 2004 to 26 September 2019.
Born 1951; Doctor of Laws (University of Bratislava); Judge at District Court, Bratislava; Judge, Appeal Court, responsible for civil law cases, and Vice-President, Appeal Court, Bratislava; member of the civil and family law section at the Ministry of Justice Law Institute; acting Judge responsible for commercial law cases at the Supreme Court; Member of the European Commission of Human Rights (Strasbourg); Judge at the Constitutional Court (2000-04); Judge at the Court of First Instance from 12 May 2004 to 6 October 2009; Judge at the Court of Justice since 7 October 2009.
Born 1954; Doctor of Laws (University of Moscow); Doctor habil. in Law (University of Warsaw); taught, at the University of Vilnius, international law (from 1981), human rights law (from 1991) and Community law (from 2000); Adviser to the Lithuanian Government on foreign relations (1991-93); member of the coordinating group of the delegation negotiating accession to the European Union; Director-General of the Government's European Law Department (1997-2004); Professor of European Law at the University of Vilnius, holder of the Jean Monnet Chair; President of the Lithuanian European Union Studies Association; Rapporteur of the parliamentary working group on constitutional reform relating to Lithuanian accession; member of the International Commission of Jurists (April 2003); Judge at the General Court from 12 May 2004 to 16 September 2013.
Born 1962; law degree, University of Tartu (1981-86); Assistant to the Public Prosecutor, Tallinn (1986-91); Diploma, Estonian School of Diplomacy (1991-92); Legal Adviser (1991-93) and General Counsel at the Chamber of Commerce and Industry (1992-93); Judge, Tallinn Court of Appeal (1993-2004); European Masters in Human Rights and Democratisation, Universities of Padua and Nottingham (2002-03); Judge at the General Court from 12 May 2004 to 23 October 2013; Judge at the Court of Justice since 23 October 2013.
Born 1963; Diploma in Law, University of Latvia (1986); Investigator at the Interior Ministry for the Kirov Region and the City of Riga (1986-89);Judge, Riga District Court (1990-94); lawyer (1994-98 and July 1999 to May 2000); Minister for Justice (November 1998 to July 1999 and May 2000 to October 2002); member of the International Court of Arbitration in The Hague (2001-04); Member of Parliament (2002-04); Judge at the General Court from 12 May 2004 to 25 February 2020.
Born 1962; Judicial service examination (1987); Doctor of Laws of the University of Ljubljana (1995); professor (since 1996) of theory of law and State (jurisprudence) and of private law; researcher; postgraduate study at the University of Zurich, the Institute of Comparative Law of the University of Vienna, the Max Planck Institute for private international law in Hamburg, the Free University of Amsterdam; visiting professor at the Universities of Vienna and Freiburg (Germany) and at the Bucerius School of Law in Hamburg; head of the legal service (1994-96) and State Secretary in the Ministry of Science and Technology (1996-2000); Secretary-General of the Government (2000); Member of the Study Group on a European Civil Code since 2003; responsible for a Humboldt research project (Humboldt Foundation); publication of more than 100 legal articles and several books on European and private law; Prize of the Association of Slovene Lawyers ‘Lawyer of the Year 2003'; Member of the editorial board of a number of legal periodicals; Secretary-General of the Association of Slovene Lawyers and member of a number of lawyers' associations, including the Gesellschaft für Rechtsvergleichung; Judge at the Court of First Instance from 7 July 2004 to 6 October 2006; Advocate General at the Court of Justice from 7 October 2006 to 28 November 2012.
Born 1954; Doctor of Laws (La Sapienza University, Rome); specialised in Community law (College of Europe, Bruges); member of the Bar, legal practice (1978-83); Lecturer in Community Law at the Universities of La Sapienza (Rome) (1993-96), Luiss (Rome) (1993-96 and 2002-06) and Bocconi (Milan) (1996-2000); adviser on Community matters to the Italian Prime Minister (1993-95); official at the European Commission: Legal Adviser and subsequently Head of Cabinet of the Vice-President (1989-92), Head of Cabinet of the Commissioner responsible for the internal market (1995-99) and competition (1999), Director, Directorate-General for Competition (2000-02), Deputy Secretary-General of the European Commission (2002-05), Director-General of the Bureau of European Policy Advisers (BEPA) at the European Commission (2006); Judge at the General Court from 3 May 2006 to 15 November 2011.
Born 1961; Doctor of Laws, University of Stockholm (1995); Associate Professor (docent) and holder of the Jean Monnet Chair of European Law (1995); Professor of European Law, University of Stockholm (2001); Managing Director of an educational foundation (1993-2004); Chairman of the Nätverket för europarättslig forskning (Swedish Network for European Legal Research) (2001-06); member of the Rådet för konkurrensfrågor (Council for Competition Law Matters) (2001-06); Judge at the General Court from 7 October 2006 to 28 November 2012; Advocate General at the Court of Justice from 28 November 2012 to 6 February 2019.
Born 1965; law degree (1989); LL.M.; PhD; called to the Bar (1994); performed various tasks and functions in public authorities, principally in the Government Office for Legislation (Under-Secretary of State and Deputy Director, Head of Department for European and Comparative Law) and in the Office for European Affairs (Under-Secretary of State); member of the negotiating team for the association agreement (1994-96) and for accession to the European Union (1998-2002), responsible for legal affairs; practising lawyer; Team leader and senior expert in EU financed projects regarding adaptation to European legislation and for European integration principally in the western Balkans; Head of Division at the Court of Justice of the European Communities (2004-06); Judge at the General Court from 7 October 2006 to 26 September 2019.
Born 1940; Degree in law at St Kliment Ohridski University, Sofia (1961); Doctorate in law (1977); Lawyer (1963-64); Legal adviser, State Automobile Enterprise for International Transport (1964-73); Research fellow at the Institute of Law, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (1973-88); Associate professor of civil procedure at the Faculty of Law of St Kliment Ohridski University, Sofia (1988-91); Arbitrator at the Court of Arbitration of the Chamber of Trade and Industry (1988-2006); Judge at the Constitutional Court (1991-94); Associate professor at Paissi Hilendarski University, Plovdiv (February 2001 to 2006); Minister for Justice (1994-95); Associate professor of civil procedure at the New Bulgarian University, Sofia (1995-2006); Judge at the General Court from 12 January 2007 to 29 June 2010
Born 1960; Degree in law (1984), doctorate in law (1997), Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, Iaşi; Judge at the Court of First Instance, Suceava (1984-89); Military judge at the Military Court, Iaşi (1989-90); Professor at Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, Iaşi (1990-2006); Stipended student specialising in private law at the University of Rennes (1991-92); Assistant professor at Petre Andrei University, Iaşi (1999-2002); Lecturer at the Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale, Dunkirk (Research Unit on Industry and Innovation) (2006); Judge at the General Court from 12 January 2007 to 26 November 2010.
Born 1950; studied law at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (1970-75); articled law clerk in the Nuremberg Higher Regional Court district (1975-78); Adviser at the Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs (1978-82); Counsellor at the Permanent Representation of the Federal Republic of Germany to the European Communities (1982); Adviser at the Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs, responsible for Community law and competition issues (1983-92); Head of the EU Law Section at the Federal Ministry of Justice (1992-2007); Head of the German delegation on the Council Working Party on the Court of Justice; Agent of the Federal Government in a large number of cases before the Court of Justice of the European Communities; Judge at the General Court from 17 September 2007 to 26 September 2019.
Born 1960; graduated in law from the Autonomous University of Barcelona (1983); Judge (1985); from 1992 Judge specialising in contentious administrative proceedings, assigned to the High Court of Justice of the Canary Islands at Santa Cruz de Tenerife (1992 and 1993), and to the National High Court (Madrid, May 1998 to August 2007), where he decided judicial proceedings in the field of tax (VAT), actions brought against general legislative provisions of the Ministry of the Economy and against its decisions on State aid or the government's financial liability, and actions brought against all agreements of the central economic regulators in the spheres of banking, the stock market, energy, insurance and competition; Legal Adviser at the Constitutional Court (1993-98); Judge at the General Court since 17 September 2007 to 16 September 2013.
Born 1962; graduate of the Institut d'études politiques, Paris (1984); former student of the École nationale de la magistrature (National School for the Judiciary) (1986-88); Judge at the Regional Court, Marseilles (January 1988 to January 1990); Law Officer in the Directorate for Civil Affairs and the Legal Professions at the Ministry of Justice (January 1990 to June 1992); Deputy Section Head, then Section Head, in the Directorate-General for Competition, Consumption and the Combating of Fraud at the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Finance and Industry (June 1992 to September 1994); Technical Adviser to the Minister for Justice (September 1994 to May 1995); Judge at the Regional Court, Nîmes (May 1995 to May 1996); Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice in the Chambers of Advocate General Léger (May 1996 to December 2001); Auxiliary Judge at the Court of Cassation (December 2001 to August 2007); Judge at the General Court since 17 September 2007 to 16 September 2013.
Born 1946; educated at Crescent College Limerick, Clongowes Wood College, University College Dublin (BA degree and Diploma in European Law) and the King's Inns; called to the Bar of Ireland in 1968; Barrister (1968-82); Senior Counsel (Inner Bar of Ireland, 1982-86); Judge of the Circuit Court (1986-97); Judge of the High Court of Ireland (1997-2008); Bencher of King's Inns; Irish Representative on the Consultative Council of European Judges (2000-08); Judge at the General Court since 15 September 2008 to 16 September 2013.
Born 1948; graduated in law from the University of Bucharest (1971); postgraduate studies in international labour law and European social law, University of Geneva (1973-74); Doctor of Laws of the University of Bucharest (1980); trainee assistant lecturer (1971-73), assistant lecturer with tenure (1974-85) and then lecturer in labour law at the University of Bucharest (1985-90); principal researcher at the National Research Institute for Labour and Social Protection (1990-91); Deputy Director-General (1991-92), then Director (1992-96) at the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection; senior lecturer (1997), then professor at the National School of Political Science and Public Administration, Bucharest (2000); State Secretary at the Ministry for European Integration (2001-05); Head of Department at the Legislative Council of Romania (1996-2001 and 2005-09); founding editor of the Romanian Review of European Law; President of the Romanian Society for European Law (2009-10); Agent of the Romanian Government before the Courts of the European Union (2009-10); Judge at the General Court from 26 November 2010 to 19 September 2016.
Born 1950; degree in law (Sapienza University of Rome, 1973), Diploma of Advanced European Studies at the College of Europe (Bruges, 1974-75); official of the Commission of the European Communities (‘International Affairs' Directorate of the Directorate-General for Agriculture, 1975-76); member of the Legal Service of the Commission of the European Communities (1976-91 and 1994-95); Representative of the Legal Service of the Commission of the European Communities in Luxembourg (1990-91); Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice of the European Communities in the chambers of the judge Mr G.F. Mancini (1991-94); Legal Adviser to members of the Commission of the European Communities, Mr M. Monti (1995-97) and Mr F. Bolkestein (2000-02); Director of the ‘Procurement Policy' Directorate (2002-03), the ‘Services, Intellectual and Industrial Property, Media and Data Protection' Directorate (2003-05) and the ‘Services' Directorate (2005-11) at the Directorate-General for the Internal Market of the Commission of the European Communities; Principal Legal Adviser and Director of the ‘Justice, Freedom and Security, Private Law and Criminal Law' Team at the Legal Service of the European Commission (2011-12); Judge at the General Court from 17 September 2012 to 26 September 2019.
Born 1949; Uppsala University, B.A. in economics 1974, LLM 1977; Administrative Officer at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1977); member of the Swedish Bar Association (from 1983); member of the competition law working group of ICC (International Chamber of Commerce) Sweden; Lecturer in competition law at Lund University and Stockholm University; author of numerous publications; Judge at the General Court from 18 March 2013 to 19 September 2016.
Born 1950; degree in law from the University of Vilnius (1973); doctorate in law (1978); Assistant Lecturer, Junior Lecturer and then Senior Lecturer at the Law Faculty of the University of Vilnius (1977-92); Consultant in the Legal Department of the Supreme Council - Reconstituent Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania (1990-92); Adviser at the Lithuanian Embassy in Belgium (1992-94); Adviser at the Lithuanian Embassy in France (1994-96); Member of the European Commission of Human Rights (1996-99); Judge at the Supreme Court of Lithuania (1999-2011); Senior Lecturer in the Criminal Law Department of the University of Vilnius (2003-13); Representative of the Republic of Lithuania on the Joint Supervisory Body of Eurojust (2004-11); Judge at the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Lithuania (2011-13); Judge at the General Court from 16 September 2013 to 26 September 2019.
Born 1967; Law Degree with honours (1985-1990) and PhD studies (1990-1993) at Universidad Complutense, Madrid; Public Prosecutor of Gerona (2000-2003); Judicial and Human Rights Advisor for the Coalition Provisional Authority, Baghdad, Iraq (2003-2004); Civil First Instance Judge and Investigative Judge (2003-2007) thenSenior Judge, Gerona (2008); Deputy Head of EUJUST LEX Integrated Rule of Law Mission for Iraq at the Council of the European Union (2005-2006); Legal Counsellor of the Constitutional Court of Spain (2006-2011 and 2013); Secretary of State for Security (2012-2013); Civil Expert on Rule of Law and Security Sector Reform of the Council of the European Union (2005-2011); External Expert on Fundamental Rights and Criminal Justice for the European Commission (2011-2013); lecturer and author of numerous publications; Judge at the General Court from 16th September 2013 to 26 September 2019.
Born 1945; degrees from the University of Glasgow (MA 1965, LLB 1967) (history and English literature, law); master’s degree in civil law from Tulane University of Louisiana (MCL 1969); called to the Scottish Bar (1972) and the New York Bar (1977); appointed Queen’s Counsel (1988); called to the Bar of England and Wales (1996) and the Brussels Bar (1999); practised at the Bar in Edinburgh, Brussels, London and New York; visiting professor (1991) and doctor honoris causa (2009) of the University of Glasgow; Bencher of Middle Temple (2012); arbitrator at the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) and the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS); author of numerous publications; Judge at the General Court from 7 October 2015 to 31 January 2020.
Born 1957; graduated in law from the Complutense University of Madrid (1979) and Master of Arts, Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University (United States) (1985); Professor of Law at the CEU San Pablo University (1985-93); Legal Adviser, Council of State (1983-96); Secretary-General of the Centre for Advanced Study in the Social Sciences, Juan March Foundation (1991-96); Deputy Secretary, Ministry of the Interior (1996-2001); general counsel (2001-03); lawyer (2004-05); Director of Master in International Relations and Professor of Law at the Instituto de Empresa (2007-13); Senior Legal Adviser, Council of State (2005-16); Judge at the General Court from 13 April 2016 to 26 September 2019.
Born 1954; graduated in law from the University of Malta (1977); Master of Laws, University of London (1979); Ph.D., University of Cambridge (1982); lecturer at Ealing College of Higher Education (1982-84); lecturer at Exeter University (1984-90); senior lecturer at Queen Mary and Westfield College, University of London (1990-93); legal adviser in the private sector, then at the Maltese Parliament (1993-2016); Professor and Head of the Department of European and Comparative Law at the University of Malta (1993-2016); Director of the European Documentation and Research Centre of the University of Malta (1993-2016); President of the Malta European Law Association; author of numerous publications; Judge at the General Court (2016-18); Judge at the Court of Justice since 8 October 2018.
Born 1950; Doctor of Laws and lawyer at the Padua Bar; assistant lecturer, then senior researcher in civil and comparative law in the law faculty of the University of Padua (1977-82); lecturer in Community law at the European College, of Parma (1990-98), in the law faculties of the University of Padua (1985-87), the University of Macerata (1991-94) and the University of Naples (1995), and at the University of Milan (2000-01); member of the Scientific Committee for the Master’s in European Integration at the University of Padua; official in the Library, Research and Documentation Directorate of the Court of Justice of the European Communities (1982-84); Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice of the European Communities to Advocate General Mancini (1984-88); Legal Adviser to the Secretary-General of the European Parliament, E. Vinci (1988-93); Head of Division in the Legal Service of the European Parliament (1995-99); Director for Legislative Affairs and Conciliations, Inter-Institutional Relations and Relations with National Parliaments, at the European Parliament (1999-2004); Director for External Relations at the European Parliament (2004-06); Director for Legislative Affairs in the Legal Service of the European Parliament (2006-11); author of a number of publications on Italian civil law and EU law; Judge at the Civil Service Tribunal from 6 October 2011 to 31 August 2016; Judge at the General Court from 19 September 2016 to 26 September 2019.
Born in 1974, graduate in Law (1997) and Doctor of Law (2007), Charles University of Prague (1997); Masters of Laws, University of Stockholm (2000); Trainee Judge at the Prague City Court (1997-2001); Judge at the Prague 2 District Court (2001-2005); Judge at the Supreme Administrative Court of the Czech Republic (2005-2016); Lecturer in Law inter alia EU law at Charles University, Prague (2001-2003), Masaryk University, Brno (2006-2016), Palacký University, Olomouc (2014-2016) and at the Judicial Academy of the Czech Republic (2001-2016); Judge at the General Court (2016-2020); Judge at the Court of Justice since 6 October 2020.
Born 1944; Assistant, and subsequently Assistant Lecturer at the Faculty of Law (Berlin); Rechtsanwalt (Frankfurt am Main); Lawyer-linguist at the Court of Justice; Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice in the Chambers of the President, Mr Kutscher, and subsequently in the Chambers of the German judge; Deputy Registrar at the Court of Justice; Registrar of the Court of First Instance since 10 October 1989; died on 26 September 2009.