Judgment of the Court (Grand Chamber), 2 December 2014

A and Others v Staatssecretaris van Veiligheid en Justitie

Requests for a preliminary ruling from the Raad van State

References for a preliminary ruling — Area of freedom, security and justice — Directive 2004/83/EC — Minimum standards for granting refugee status or subsidiary protection status — Article 4 — Assessment of facts and circumstances — Methods of assessment — Acceptance of certain types of evidence — Extent of the competent national authority’s powers — Fear of persecution on grounds of sexual orientation — Differences between, on the one hand, the limitations that apply to the verification of statements and documentary or other evidence as regards the declared sexual orientation of an applicant for asylum and, on the other hand, those that apply to the verification of those elements as regards other grounds for persecution — Directive 2005/85/EC — Minimum standards in respect of procedures in Member States for granting and withdrawing refugee status — Article 13 — Requirements for a personal interview — Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union — Article 1 — Human dignity — Article 7 — Respect for private and family life

Joined Cases C‑148/13 to C‑150/13


Top of the page Documents in the Case
Document Date Name of the parties Subject-matter Curia EUR-Lex
Judgment (OJ)
23/01/2015 A
View pdf documents
Judgment
ECLI:EU:C:2014:2406
02/12/2014 A
EUR-Lex text EUR-Lex bilingual text
Judgment (Summary)
ECLI:EU:C:2014:2406
02/12/2014 A
Opinion
ECLI:EU:C:2014:2111
17/07/2014 A
EUR-Lex text EUR-Lex bilingual text
Application (OJ)
31/05/2013 A
Top of the page Legal analysis of the decision or of the case

Reports of Cases

published in the electronic Reports of Cases (Court Reports - general)

Subject-matter

Request for a preliminary ruling - Raad van State - Interpretation of Article 4 of Council Directive 2004/83/EC of 29 April 2004 on minimum standards for the qualification and status of third country nationals or stateless persons as refugees or as persons who otherwise need international protection and the content of the protection granted (OJ 2004 L 304, p. 12) - Evaluation of applications for international protection - Evaluation of facts and circumstances - Scope of the assessment of the credibility of an applicant’s declarations regarding sexual orientation - Limits on the assessment carried out by a Member State

Systematic classification scheme

1.
1 The legal order of the European Union
  1.04 Fundamental rights
    1.04.03 The fundamental rights
      1.04.03.01 Human dignity
1 The legal order of the European Union
  1.04 Fundamental rights
    1.04.03 The fundamental rights
      1.04.03.07 Respect for private and family life
4 Internal policy of the European Union
  4.06 Area of freedom, security and justice
    4.06.01 Border checks, asylum and immigration
      4.06.01.03 Asylum policy
4 Internal policy of the European Union
  4.06 Area of freedom, security and justice
    4.06.01 Border checks, asylum and immigration
      4.06.01.03 Asylum policy
1 The legal order of the European Union
  1.04 Fundamental rights
    1.04.03 The fundamental rights
      1.04.03.07 Respect for private and family life
4 Internal policy of the European Union
  4.06 Area of freedom, security and justice
    4.06.01 Border checks, asylum and immigration
      4.06.01.03 Asylum policy
1 The legal order of the European Union
  1.04 Fundamental rights
    1.04.03 The fundamental rights
      1.04.03.01 Human dignity
4 Internal policy of the European Union
  4.06 Area of freedom, security and justice
    4.06.01 Border checks, asylum and immigration
      4.06.01.03 Asylum policy
4 Internal policy of the European Union
  4.06 Area of freedom, security and justice
    4.06.01 Border checks, asylum and immigration
      4.06.01.03 Asylum policy


Citations of case-law or legislation

References in grounds of judgment

Operative part

Opinion


Dates

Date of the lodging of the application initiating proceedings

  • 25/03/2013

Date of the Opinion

  • 17/07/2014

Date of the hearing

Information not available

Date of delivery

02/12/2014


References

Publication in the Official Journal

Judgment: OJ C 46 from 09.02.2015, p.4

Application: OJ C 171 from 15.06.2013, p.16

Name of the parties

A

Notes on Academic Writings

  1. Bruin, René: Altijd voorzichtig. Over het interviewen van homoseksuele asielzoekers, Asiel en Migrantenrecht 2014 p.25-30 (NL)
  2. Skubic, Zoran: Mednarodna zaščita in preverjanje istospolne usmerjenosti prosilcev po pravu EU, Pravna praksa 2014 nº 48 p.24-25 (SL)
  3. Vial, Claire: Cour de justice, gde ch., 2 décembre 2014, A, B et C, aff. jtes C-148/13 à C-150/13, ECLI:EU:C:2014:2406, Jurisprudence de la CJUE 2014 (Ed. Bruylant - Bruxelles) 2014 p.130-132 (FR)
  4. Brière, C.: Espace de liberté, de sécurité et de justice - Politique d'asile, Revue du droit de l'Union européenne 2014 nº 4 p.818-822 (FR)
  5. Dunne, Peter: A, B and C v Staatssecretaris van Veiligheid en Justitie: Fairer Assessment Procedures for Gay and Lesbian Asylum Applicants in the EU, European Law Review 2015 p.411-423 (EN)
  6. Dannreuther, Anna: A, B and C v Staatsecretaris van Veilgheid en Justitie (joined cases C-148/13, C-149/13, C-150/13), Journal of Immigration Asylum and Nationality Law 2015 p.228-229 (EN)
  7. Pfersich, Andreas: Zuerkennung der Flüchtlingseigenschaft, sexuelle Ausrichtung, Prüfungsumfang, Grundrechte, Zeitschrift für Ausländerrecht und Ausländerpolitik 2015 p.158-159 (DE)
  8. Sußner, Petra: Homosexualität im Asylrecht, Migralex 2015 p.22-24 (DE)
  9. Bollo Arocena, María Dolores: Límites a los que quedan sometidas las autoridades nacionales a la hora de evaluar las solicitudes de asilo basadas en el temor a la persecución por la orientación sexual: sentencia del TJUE (gran sala), de 2 de Diciembre de 2014 (Asuntos acumulados C-148/13 a C-150/13), Revista Aranzadi Unión Europea 2015 nº1 p.55-61 (ES)
  10. Mercadante, Daniele: La Corte di giustizia precisa i diritti dei richiedenti asilo perseguitati a causa dell'orientamento sessuale, Quaderni costituzionali 2015 p.211-213 (IT)
  11. Gazin, Fabienne: Preuve d'une orientation homosexuelle, Europe 2015 Février Comm. nº 2 p.21-22 (FR)
  12. Froese, Judith ; Rätin, Akad: Innere Tatsachen als Herausforderung für die Rechtsordnung, Die öffentliche Verwaltung 2017 p.228-236 (DE)
  13. Carlier, Jean-Yves ; Leboeuf, Luc: Droit européen des migrations, Journal de droit européen 2019 nº 3 p.114-130 (FR)



Procedural Analysis Information

Source of the question referred for a preliminary ruling

Raad van State - Netherlands

Subject-matter

  • area of freedom, security and justice
  • - asylum policy
  • Fundamental rights
  • - Charter of Fundamental Rights

Provisions of national law referred to

Vreemdelingenwet 2000, art. 1, aanhef en onder l, 29, lid 1, aanhef en onder a, en 31 Vreemdelingenbesluit 2000, ar. 3.111 Voorschrift Vreemdelingen 2000, art. 3.35, 3.36 en 3.37

Vreemdelingenwet 2000, art. 1, aanhef en onder l, art. 29, lid 1, aanhef en onder a, en art. 31 Vreemdelingenbesluit 2000, art. 3.111 Voorschrift Vreemdelingen 2000, art. 3.35, 3.36 en 3.37

Provisions of international law referred to

Information not available

Procedure and result

  • Reference for a preliminary ruling

Formation of the Court

grande chambre (Cour)

Judge-Rapporteur

Bay Larsen

Advocate General

Sharpston

Language(s) of the Case

  • Dutch

Language(s) of the Opinion

  • English