Judgment of the Court (Grand Chamber) of 21 December 2011.

Air Transport Association of America and Others v Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change.

Reference for a preliminary ruling: High Court of Justice (England & Wales), Queen’s Bench Division (Administrative Court) - United Kingdom.

Reference for a preliminary ruling - Directive 2003/87/EC - Scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading - Directive 2008/101/EC - Inclusion of aviation activities in that scheme - Validity - Chicago Convention - Kyoto Protocol - EU-United States Air Transport Agreement - Principles of customary international law - Legal effects thereof - Whether they may be relied upon - Extraterritoriality of European Union law - Meaning of ‘charges’, ‘fees’ and ‘taxes’.

Case C-366/10.


Top of the page Documents in the Case
Document Date Name of the parties Subject-matter Curia EUR-Lex
Judgment (OJ)
03/02/2012 Air Transport Association of America and Others
View pdf documents
Judgment
ECLI:EU:C:2011:864
21/12/2011 Air Transport Association of America and Others
EUR-Lex text EUR-Lex bilingual text
Judgment (Summary)
ECLI:EU:C:2011:864
21/12/2011 Air Transport Association of America and Others
Opinion
ECLI:EU:C:2011:637
06/10/2011 Air Transport Association of America and Others
EUR-Lex text EUR-Lex bilingual text
Application (OJ)
25/09/2010 Air Transport Association of America and Others
View pdf documents
Top of the page Legal analysis of the decision or of the case

Reports of Cases

2011 I-13755

Subject-matter

Reference for a preliminary ruling – High Court of Justice, Queen’s Bench Division (Administrative Court) – Validity of Directive 2008/101/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to include aviation activities in the scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community (OJ 2009 L 8, p. 3) – Question as to whether certain rules and/or provisions of international law may be relied on

Systematic classification scheme

1.
6 External policy
  6.07 International agreements
    6.07.04 Effects, scope and limits
3 Legal proceedings
  3.04 Reference for a preliminary ruling
    3.04.02 Jurisdiction of the Court of Justice
6 External policy
  6.07 International agreements
    6.07.04 Effects, scope and limits
3 Legal proceedings
  3.04 Reference for a preliminary ruling
    3.04.02 Jurisdiction of the Court of Justice
6 External policy
  6.07 International agreements
    6.07.04 Effects, scope and limits
3 Legal proceedings
  3.04 Reference for a preliminary ruling
    3.04.02 Jurisdiction of the Court of Justice
6 External policy
  6.07 International agreements
    6.07.04 Effects, scope and limits
3 Legal proceedings
  3.04 Reference for a preliminary ruling
    3.04.02 Jurisdiction of the Court of Justice
1 The legal order of the European Union
  1.06 EU law and international law
1 The legal order of the European Union
  1.06 EU law and international law
1 The legal order of the European Union
  1.06 EU law and international law
4 Internal policy of the European Union
  4.23 Environment, sustainable development and climate
1 The legal order of the European Union
  1.06 EU law and international law
4 Internal policy of the European Union
  4.23 Environment, sustainable development and climate
1 The legal order of the European Union
  1.06 EU law and international law
4 Internal policy of the European Union
  4.23 Environment, sustainable development and climate
1 The legal order of the European Union
  1.06 EU law and international law
4 Internal policy of the European Union
  4.23 Environment, sustainable development and climate


Citations of case-law or legislation

References in grounds of judgment

Operative part

Opinion


Dates

Date of the lodging of the application initiating proceedings

  • 22/07/2010

Date of the Opinion

  • 06/10/2011

Date of the hearing

Information not available

Date of delivery

21/12/2011


References

Publication in the Official Journal

Application: OJ C 260 from 25.09.2010, p.9

Judgment: OJ C 49 from 18.02.2012, p.7

Name of the parties

Air Transport Association of America and Others

Notes on Academic Writings

  1. Lo Schiavo, Gianni: La jurisprudence de la Cour de justice et du Tribunal de l'Union européenne. Chronique des arrêts. Arrêt « Air Transport Association of America et autres c. Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change », Revue du droit de l'Union européenne 2011 nº 4 p.736-741 (FR)
  2. Clément-Wilz, Laure: Le système européen d'échange de quotas d'émission de gaz à effet de serre face aux règles du droit international, Revue des affaires européennes 2011 p.859-867 (FR)
  3. Havel, Brian F. ; Mulligan, John Q.: The Triumph of Politics: Reflections on the Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union Validating the Inclusion of Non-EU Airlines in the Emissions Trading Scheme, Air and Space Law 2012 p.3-33 (EN)
  4. Herz, Steffen: Emissionshandel im Luftverkehr: Zwischen EuGH-Entscheidung und völkerrechtlichen Gegenmaßnahmen?, Beiträge zum transnationalen Wirtschaftsrecht 2012 Heft 116 35 P. (DE)
  5. Simon, Denys: Droit international conventionnel et coutumier : l'invocabilité au coeur de la lecture juridictionnelle des rapports de systèmes - (à propos de l'arrêt Air Transport), Europe 2012 Mai Études nº 3 p.5-8 (FR)
  6. Mayer, Benoît: Common Market Law Review 2012 p.1113-1139 (EN)
  7. Denza, Eileen: International Aviation and the EU Carbon Trading Scheme: Comment on the Air Transport Association of America Case, European Law Review 2012 p.314-326 (EN)
  8. Athen, Marco: "Hinterm Horizont geht’s weiter!" Einbeziehung des Luftverkehrs in den Handel mit Treibhausgasemissionszertifikaten, Europäische Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftsrecht 2012 p.337-341 (DE)
  9. Prouteau, Julie: Gaz à effet de serre et activités aériennes : le système d'échange de quotas au prisme du droit international entre compatibilité juridique et affrontement politique, Revue Lamy droit des affaires 2012 nº 71 p.75-78 (FR)
  10. Bogojević, Sanja: Legalising Environmental Leadership: A Comment on the CJEU's Ruling in C-366/10 on the Inclusion of Aviation in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme, Journal of Environmental Law 2012 Vol.24 p.345-356 (EN)
  11. Gehring, Markus W.: Air Transport Association of America v. Energy Secretary: Clarifying Direct Effect and Providing Guidance for Future Instrument Design for a Green Economy in the European Union, Review of European Community & International Environmental Law 2012 p.149-153 (EN)
  12. Donnat, Francis: Chronique annuelle 2011 de jurisprudence de la Cour de justice de l'Union européenne. Application du système à l'aviation civile, Revue juridique de l'Economie publique 2012 nº 699 p.16 (FR)
  13. Dooley, Beth: Case Air Transport Association of America: Past, Present, and Future Climate Change Policy Impacts, Revue européenne de droit de la consommation 2012 p.525-539 (EN)
  14. Bergé, Jean-Sylvestre: Les mots de l’interaction : compétence, applicabilité et invocabilité (à propos de CJUE, 21 déc. 2011, aff. C-366/10, ATAA. - CJUE, 15 mars 2012, aff. C-135/10, SCF. - CE, 11 avr. 2012, nº 322326, GISTI), Journal du droit international 2012 p.1005-1020 (FR)
  15. Fleurke, F.M.: Een aanval op het Europese emissiehandelsysteem vanuit de lucht. Een bespreking van de prejudiciële beslissing van het Hof van Justitie inzake Richtlijn 2008/101/EG tot wijziging van Richtlijn 2003/87/EG, Nederlands tijdschrift voor Europees recht 2012 p.151-156 (NL)
  16. Van Eeckhoutte, Dries ; Corthaut, Tim: Doorwerking van het internationale recht in de Europese rechtsorde: verplichting en uitdaging voor de Belgische rechter. Het Air Transport Association of America-arrest van het Hof van Justitie, Rechtskundig weekblad 2012-13 p.402-414 (NL)
  17. Korn, Juhani M. V.: Von "open skies" und "green shipping" - Zur Bedeutung des Urteils über die Einbeziehung des Luftverkehrs in den Emissionshandel für das europäische Emissionsreduzierungsvorhaben in der Hochseeschifffahrt, Natur und Recht 2012 p.759-764 (DE)
  18. Gattini, Andrea: Between Splendid Isolation and Tentative Imperialism: The EU's Extension of its Emission Trading Scheme to International Aviation and The ECJ's Judgment in the ATA Case, International and Comparative Law Quarterly 2012 p.977-991 (EN)
  19. Grigorova, Zhenya: Savmestimostta na Evropeyskata shema za targoviya s kvoti za emisii na parnikovi gazove s mezhdunarodnoto pravo - dokolko i dokade tselta opravdava sredstvata ?, Европейски правен преглед 2012 P.106-140 (BG)
  20. Franceschelli, Ferdinando: Il rapporto fra diritto internazionale e diritto dell'UE nella sentenza Air Transport Association of America della Corte di giustizia dell'UE, Giurisprudenza italiana 2013 p.183-188 (IT)
  21. Odermatt, Jed: The Columbia Journal of European Law 2013 p.143-165 (EN)
  22. Castillo de la Torre, Fernando: El Tribunal de Justicia completa y precisa su jurisprudencia sobre la posición del derecho internacional en el derecho de la Unión, y concluye que el régimen de derechos de emisión de gases de efecto invernadero es compatible con el derecho internacional (STJ de 21.12.2011, asunto Air Transport Association of America, C-366/10), Revista española de Derecho Europeo 2013 nº 46 p.93-149 (ES)
  23. De Baere, Geert ; Ryngaert, Cedric: The ECJ’s Judgment in Air Transport Association of America and the International Legal Context of the EU’s Climate Change Policy, European Foreign Affairs Review 2013 p.389-409 (EN)
  24. Adamczak-Retecka, Monika: Do kogo należy niebo? Rozważania na marginesie wyroku Trybunału Sprawiedliwości Unii Europejskiej wydanego w sprawie C-366/10 Air Transport Association of America, Gdańskie Studia Prawnicze 2017 p.267-277 (PL)
  25. Simon, Denys: Applicabilité des accords entre l'Union européenne et le Royaume du Maroc au territoire du Sahara occidental: Acte II, Europe 2018 avril nº 4 p.6-10 (FR)



Procedural Analysis Information

Source of the question referred for a preliminary ruling

High Court of Justice Queen's Bench Division (Administrative Court) - United Kingdom

Subject-matter

  • Environment
  • - Pollution
  • External relations
  • - international agreements

Provisions of national law referred to

Information not available

Provisions of international law referred to

Convention de Chicago sur l'organisation de l'aviation civile internationale (07/12/1944), art. 1, 11, 12, 15, 24 Protocole de Kyoto (10/12/1997), art. 2, par. 2 Accord 'ciel ouvert' (30/03/2008), art. 7, 11, par. 2, lettre c, et 15, par. 3 Résolution A35-3 dans le domaine de la protection de l'environnement de l'Organisation de l'Aviation Civile Internationale ("OACI") (28/09/2004) Résolution A36-22 dans le domaine de la protection de l'environnement de l'Organisation de l'Aviation Civile Internationale ("OACI") (28/09/2007)

Procedure and result

  • Reference for a preliminary ruling

Formation of the Court

grande chambre (Cour)

Judge-Rapporteur

Toader

Advocate General

Kokott

Language(s) of the Case

  • English

Language(s) of the Opinion

  • German