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The Court of Justice

Massimo PILOTTI 

Massimo PILOTTI
Born on 1 August 1879 in Rome; Italian national; Doctor of Laws, became a judge (1901); Judge of the District Court, Rome (1913); Judge of the Court of Appeal, Rome (1923); Judge of the Court of Cassation (1926); First President of the Court of Appeal, Trieste (1930); Principal State Prosecutor at the Court of Cassation (1944); President of the Public Waters Appeal Court (1948); First Honorary President of the Court of Cassation (1949); Deputy Secretary-General of the League of Nations (1932-37); President of the International Institute for the Unification of Private Law (1944); Member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration, The Hague (1949); President of the Court of Justice from 1952 to 1958; died on 29 April 1962.

Petrus SERRARENS

Petrus SERRARENS
Born on 12 November 1888 in Dordrecht; Netherlands national; General Secretary of the International Federation of Christian Trade Unions (1920-52); delegate at numerous international labour conferences, deputy member of the board of administration of the International Labour Office, Chairman of the Social Affairs Committee of the Council of Europe, Member of the First Chamber (1929) and of the Second Chamber (1939-52) of the States General; Judge at the Court of Justice of the ECSC from 4 December 1952 to 6 October 1958; died on 26 August 1963.

Otto RIESE 

Otto RIESE
Born on 27 October 1894 in Frankfurt am Main; German national; Doctor of Laws (1921); Assistant Judge at the Landgericht (Regional Court), Frankfurt am Main (1923); official at the Ministry for Justice (1925-28); studied English law (London, 1928); Lecturer (1932), Professor Extraordinary (1935), Professor (1949), Dean of the Faculty of Law (1950) and Honorary Professor (1951) at the University of Lausanne; President of Chamber at the Bundesgerichtshof (Federal Court of Justice), Karlsruhe; Member of CITEJA (International Technical Committee of Legal Aeronautical Experts) (from 1926); Judge at the Court of Justice of the ECSC from 4 December 1952 to 6 October 1958; Judge at the Court of Justice of the European Communities from 7 October 1958 to 6 February 1963; died on 4 June 1977.

Louis DELVAUX 

Louis DELVAUX
Born on 21 October 1895 in Orp-le-Grand (Belgium); Belgian national; Doctor of Laws (1922); enrolled at the Louvain Bar, then at the Nivelles Bar; deputy for the district of Nivelles in the Chamber of Representatives (1936-46); Minister for Agriculture (1945); left politics (1946) and returned to the bar (1946-49); Chairman of the Board of the Office des séquestres (Public Sequestration Office) (1949-53); Auditor of the Banque nationale; Director of the Société nationale de la petite propriété terrienne (National Company for Small Rural Landholdings) until March 1953; engaged in journalism from 1931 to 1940 and from 1944 to 1945: ‘Le vingtième siècle', ‘Le Soir', ‘La cité'; Judge at the Court of Justice of the ECSC from 4 December 1952 to 6 October 1958; Judge at the Court of Justice of the European Communities from 7 October 1958 to 8 October 1967; died on 24 August 1976.

Jacques RUEFF

Jacques RUEFF
Born on 23 August 1896 in Paris; French national; Inspector General of Taxes; Member of the Institut de France; Foreign Member of the Belgian Royal Academy for Science and the Arts and of the Accademia dei Lincei; Inspector of Taxes (1923); Professor at the Institute for Statistics of the University of Paris (1923-30); Chargé de mission in the office of Raymond Poincaré, Prime Minister and Minister of Finance (1926); Member of the Economics and Finance Section of the Secretariat of the League of Nations (1927); Financial Attaché at the French Embassy in London (1930); Professor at the École libre des sciences politiques (from 1933): Deputy Director for General Capital Movements at the Ministry of Finance (1934); Director for General Capital Movements (1936-39); Councillor of State on special duty (1936); Deputy Governor of the Banque de France (1939); Assistant Delegate at the first and second assemblies of the United Nations (1946); French Member of the Economics and Employment Committee of the United Nations (1946); Honorary President of the Société d'économie politique de Paris and of the Société de statistique de Paris; Honorary President of the International Council of Philosophy and Human Sciences; Judge at the Court of Justice of the ECSC from 4 December 1952 to 6 October 1958; Judge at the Court of Justice of the European Communities from 7 October 1958 to 18 May 1962. On the foundation of the Fifth Republic he oversaw the committee of experts entrusted by General de Gaulle with the preparation and implementation of the economic recovery plan one of whose most spectacular measures was the creation of the ‘franc lourd' (revalued franc). From 1962 to 1974, he was a member of the Economic and Social Council. He was awarded the Grand Cross of the Légion d'honneur, was a member of the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences, and served as Chancellor of the Institut de France. He was elected to the Académie française on 30 April 1964, to the seat of Jean Cocteau, with 18 votes to the six cast for the poet André Berry, and was received on 1 April 1965 by André Maurois. Died on 23 April 1978.

Charles Léon HAMMES

Charles Léon HAMMES
Born on 21 May 1898 in Falk; Luxembourg national; Doctor of Laws; Lawyer at the Luxembourg bar (1922-27); Attaché at the Ministry for Justice (1927-29); Magistrate (1929-30); Deputy State Prosecutor (1930-37); Judge at a tribunal d'arrondissement (District Court) (1937-45); Judge at the Cour supérieure de justice (High Court of Justice) (1945-52); Councillor on the Litigation Committee of the Council of State (1951-52); Professor Extraordinary at the University of Brussels; Member of the Council of State of the Grand Duchy; Member of the Benelux Commission on Unification of Law; President of the National Commission for the Hague Conference on Private International Law; President of the Legislative Studies Commission of the Grand Duchy; Judge at the Court of Justice of the ECSC from 4 December 1952 to 6 October 1958; Judge at the Court of Justice of the European Communities from 7 October 1958 to 7 October 1964; President of the Court of Justice from 8 October 1964 to 9 October 1967; President of the Court of Arbitration of the Association between the EEC and the African and Malagasy States associated with that Community (1965-67); died on 9 December 1967.

Adrianus VAN KLEFFENS

Adrianus VAN KLEFFENS
Born on 14 October 1899; Netherlands national; studied law at Leiden; worked in the General Secretariat of the League of Nations in Geneva; Judge at the Rechtbank te Amsterdam (Court of Amsterdam); Member of the International Maritime Commission; Director of the External Trade Department of the Ministry for Economic Affairs (1934); prisoner of war; in 1945 resumed work at the same ministry; associated with the development of European economic integration; principal author, on behalf of the Netherlands, of the project for Benelux Union; Judge at the Court of Justice of the ECSC from 10 December 1952 to 6 October 1958; died on 2 August 1973.

Maurice LAGRANGE 

Maurice LAGRANGE
Born on 14 May 1900 in Meudon; French national; joined the Council of State following a competition and was Legal Assistant (Second Class) (1924), Legal Assistant (First Class) (1929), Legal Adviser (1934), Councillor of State in the Finance Section (1945); Commissaire du gouvernement; participated, as legal expert, in the negotiations which resulted in the signing of the Treaty establishing the ECSC (1950); Advocate General at the Court of Justice of the ECSC from 4 December 1952 to 6 October 1958; Advocate General at the Court of Justice of the European Communities from 7 October 1958 to 8 October 1964; died on 5 September 1986.

Karl ROEMER

Karl ROEMER
Born on 30 December 1899; German national; studied political economy and law (Cologne, Munich, Freiburg, Bonn); Assistant Judge and Judge (Cologne, 1932); Lawyer at the Berlin Bar (until 1946); Lawyer at the Landgericht (Regional Court) and Oberlandesgericht (Higher Regional Court), Saarbrücken; from 1947 to 1952 work principally concerned with foreign law, defended German interests before authorities and courts established under the occupying regime and before foreign administrative authorities and courts; special missions on behalf of the Federal Government before the establishment of diplomatic services abroad; participated in the work of the Sonderstelle für Geld und Kredit in Homburg, in preparation for monetary reform (1947-48); Advocate General at the Court of Justice from 1953 to 1973; died on 21 December 1984.

Rino ROSSI 

Rino ROSSI
Born in Chivenna on 14 August 1889; Italian national; Pretore (magistrate) in Caraglio (1920) and Turin (1924); President of the District Court, Rhodes (1928), appointed to the District Court, Rome (1934); Judge at the Consular Court, Cairo (1936); seconded to the Ministry for Foreign Affairs (1940); President of the Court of Appeal, Rhodes (1941); Judge at the Court of Appeal, Aquila, then at the Court of Appeal, Rome (1945); seconded to the Public Prosecutor's Office at the Court of Cassation (1948); Deputy Public Prosecutor at the Court of Cassation (1951), President of Chamber of the Court of Cassation (1958); Judge at the Court of Justice from 7 October 1958 to 7 October 1964; died on 6 February 1974.

Andreas Matthias DONNER

Andreas Matthias DONNER
Born on 15 January 1918 in Rotterdam; Netherlands national; Doctor of Laws (1941); collaboration, with regard to legal aspects, on ‘Schoolraad voor de Scholen met de Bijbel' and following the banning of this body by the occupier continued his activity underground (1941-45); Professor of Public Law and Administrative Law at the Free University Amsterdam (from 1945); President of the Netherlands Association for Administrative Law (1948-58); Member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (from 1955); Judge at the Court of Justice from 7 October 1958 to 29 March 1979, President from 7 October 1958 to 7 October 1964; Professor of Constitutional Law at the University of Groningen (1979-84); died on 24 August 1992.

Nicola CATALANO

Nicola CATALANO
Born on 27 February 1910 in Castellaneta; Italian national; Doctor of Laws (1932); practised as a lawyer until 1939; following a competition, joined the State Legal Office, and was appointed Deputy Public Prosecutor (1955); Assistant lecturer at the University of Rome (1939-50); board member of the publishing house Il Giornale d'Italia (1944-46); Legal Adviser to the State Printing Works and Stationery Office (1946-48); Agent of the Italian Government at conciliation commissions under the peace treaty (1948-50); Legal Adviser of the Tangier International Zone (1951-53) and of the High Authority of the ECSC (1953-56); Legal Expert on the Italian delegation for drawing up the Treaties of Rome; author of a number of legal works; Judge at the Court of Justice (1958-61); died on 5 August 1984.

Alberto TRABUCCHI

Alberto TRABUCCHI
Born on 26 July 1907 in Verona; Italian national; Doctor of Laws (University of Padua, 1928); Assistant at the Institute for Jurisprudence in Padua (1929); Qualified Professor in Civil Law (1935); Professor with responsibility for civil law at Ferrara (1935-42); Professor Extraordinary of Civil Law at Venice (1941-42); Professor of Civil Law at Padua from 1942 and Professor of Comparative Private Law at the same university from 1953; Director of the Institute of Private Law at Padua from 1945; Member of the Istituto Veneto of Venice, of the Academies of Padua, Verona and Ferrara; Judge at the Court of Justice from 8 March 1962 to 12 December 1972, then Advocate General from 9 January 1973 to 6 October 1976; died on 18 April 1998..

Robert LECOURT 

Robert LECOURT
Born on 19 September 1908; French national; Doctor of Laws; Avocat at the cour d'appel de Paris (Court of Appeal, Paris); reserve captain; Member of the Underground Management Committee of the movement ‘Résistance' and member of the National Liberation Movement; Member of the Provisional Consultative Assembly; deputy for Paris (1945-58); deputy for Hautes-Alpes (November 1958); Minister for Justice (on several occasions between 1948 and 1958); Minister responsible for aid and cooperation between France and the Member States of the Community, subsequently for the overseas départements and territories and the Sahara (January 1959-August 1961); Member of the Executive Committee of the European Movement; Judge at the Court of Justice from 18 May 1962 to 9 October 1967, President from 10 October 1967 to 25 October 1976; died on 9 August 2004.

Walter STRAUSS

Walter STRAUSS
Born on 15 June 1900 in Berlin; German national; Doctor of Laws (Heidelberg, 1924); Assistant Judge at Berlin courts; employed in the Ministry for the Economy (1928-35); economics expert; director of administration in Berlin hospitals; State Secretary of the Government of Hesse for federal matters, member of the managing board of the Council of the Länder in the American-occupied zone, in Stuttgart (1946); Deputy Director (1947-48), then Head of the Legal Office (1948-49), in the combined economic administration of the American and British occupied zones; Member of the Parliamentary Council (1948-49); State Secretary in the Federal Ministry for Justice (1949-63); Judge at the Court of Justice from 6 February 1963 to 28 October 1970; died on 1 January 1976.

Riccardo MONACO 

Riccardo MONACO
Born on 2 January 1909; Italian national; Doctor of Laws (University of Turin, 1930); Privatdozent (lecturer) in International Law (1933); Assistant Lecturer at the University of Turin; Professor of International Law at the University of Cagliari (1939-40), then at the University of Modena (1940-42); Professor at the Faculty of Law, Turin (1942-56); Professor in International Organisation at the Faculty of Political Sciences of the University of Rome (1956-64); Judge at the Court of Turin; Councillor of State (from 1948); President of the Honorary Section of the Council of State (1956); Secretary-General of the Contentious Diplomatic Affairs Department and Head of the Legal Service; Member of the Institute of International Law; Member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration; Judge at the Court of Justice from 8 October 1964 to 3 February 1976; died on 18 January 2000.

Joseph GAND

Joseph GAND
Born on 28 February 1913; French national; degree in law; completed postgraduate studies in public law and political economy; completed studies at the École libre des sciences politiques; successful candidate in a competition for the post of Legal Assistant at the Council of State (1963); Commissaire au gouvernement in the Judicial Division of the Council of State (1947-50, 1957-60 and 1962-64); Director-General of Administration and the Civil Service (February 1959-April 1961); Senior lecturer at the École nationale d'administration (1947-58) and Professor at the Institut d'études politiques, Paris (1958-62); Advocate General at the Court of Justice from 8 October 1964 to 6 October 1970; died on 4 October 1974.

Josse J. MERTENS de WILMARS 

Josse J. MERTENS de WILMARS
Born on 22 June 1912 in St-Niklaas Waas; Belgian national; Doctor of Laws (1934); Avocat, Member of the Conseil de l'Ordre (Bar Council) (1935); Doctor in Political and Diplomatic Sciences (1945); Board Member and subsequently President of the Vlaamse Conferentie van de Balie (Flemish Bar Conference); Member of the House of Representatives (1951-61); Member of Parliamentary Committees: Foreign Affairs, Justice and Constitutional Reform; Professor Extraordinary at the Faculty of Law of the University of Louvain; Judge at the Court of Justice from 9 October 1967 to 29 October 1980, President from 30 October 1980 to 10 April 1984; died on 1 August 2002.

Pierre PESCATORE

Pierre PESCATORE
Born in Luxembourg on 20 November 1919; Luxembourg national; Doctor of Laws; Legal Adviser, Political Director and Permanent Secretary in the Ministry for Foreign Affairs (1946-67); Assistant Lecturer in the Faculty of Law of the University of Liège (1951); Co-founder of the Institute of European Legal Studies at the University of Liège (1963); Professor Extraordinary and holder of the Chair in European Community Law (1965); Associate Member of the Institute of International Law at the session in Warsaw (1965); Member of the Moral and Political Science Section of the Grand-Ducal Institute (1967); Judge at the Court of Justice from 9 October 1967 to 7 October 1985; died on 2 February 2010.

Hans KUTSCHER

Hans KUTSCHER
Born on 14 December 1911 in Hamburg; German national; studied law and political science (Graz, Freiburg im Breisgau and Berlin); Doctor of Laws (1937, Königsberg, Prussia); Official in the Ministries for Economic Affairs and Transport; Secretary of the Law Committee of the Bundestag and of the Vermittlungsausschuss (Joint Committee) of the Bundestag and the Bundesrat; Judge at the Bundesverfassungsgericht (Federal Constitutional Court), Karlsruhe (1955-70); Honorary Professor at the University of Heidelberg; Judge at the Court of Justice from 28 October 1970 to 6 October 1976; President from 7 October 1976 to 31 October 1980; died on 24 August 1993.

Alain Louis DUTHEILLET de LAMOTHE

Alain Louis DUTHEILLET de LAMOTHE
Born in Limoges on 25 August 1919; French national; Doctor of Laws; degree in English; studied at the École nationale d'administration (1945-47); Legal Assistant at the Council of State, then successively appointed Legal Adviser (1954) and Member of the Council of State (1969); Commissaire du gouvernement in the Judicial Division of the Council of State (1957-69) and in the tribunal des conflits (court for resolving conflicts of jurisdiction) (1965-70); seconded for certain periods to the Interministerial Committee for European Economic Cooperation (1948-51) and to the offices of the Prime Minister (1952), the Minister for National Defence (1952-54) and the Minister for Justice (1969-70); assignments abroad by way of technical assistance; Senior Lecturer at the École nationale d'administration and at the Institut d'études politiques, Paris; regular contributor to several legal journals; Advocate General at the Court of Justice from 7 October 1970 to 2 January 1972, the date of his death.

Henri MAYRAS 

Henri MAYRAS
Born on 29 March 1920 in Charenton-le-Pont (Val-de-Marne); French national; completed postgraduate studies in public law and political economy; Agent of the Government at the Franco-Italian Conciliation Commission (1949-51); Technical Adviser in the office of the Minister for Justice (1952-53); Legal Assistant at the Council of State, then successively appointed Legal Adviser (1954) and Judge (1972); Legal Adviser of the French Embassy in Morocco (1956-58); Commissaire du gouvernement in the Judicial Division of the Council of State (1958-61); President of the Administrative Chamber of the Supreme Court of Morocco (1961-64); Director of Judicial Services at the Ministry for Justice (1964); Senior Lecturer at the École nationale d'administration; Assistant Lecturer at the Faculty of Law, Rabat; Professor at the Moroccan School of Administration; Advocate General at the Court of Justice from 22 March 1972 to 18 March 1981; died on 9 July 1995.

Cearbhall O'DALAIGH

Cearbhall O'DALAIGH
Born on 12 February 1911; Irish national; University College, Dublin (graduate in Celtic Studies, 1933); Barrister, King's Inns (1934); Senior Counsel (1945); Bencher of King's Inns (1946); Attorney General (1946-48 and 1951-53); Judge of the Supreme Court (1953-61); Chief Justice (1961-73); Judge at the Court of Justice from 9 January 1973 to 12 December 1974; President of Ireland (1974-76); died on 21 March 1978.

Max SØRENSEN

Max SØRENSEN
Born on 19 February 1913 in Copenhagen; Danish national; studied law at the University of Copenhagen and at the Graduate Institute of International Studies, Geneva; Doctor of Laws (1946); Official in the Danish Ministry for Foreign Affairs posted to Berne and London (1938-45); Professor of International Law and of Constitutional Law at the University of Aarhus (from 1947); Ad hoc Judge, appointed by the Governments of Denmark and the Netherlands at the International Court of Justice, for cases relating to the continental shelf of the North Sea (1968-69); Member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration; Member of the Institute of International Law; Judge at the Court of Justice from 9 January 1973 to 8 October 1979; died on 11 October 1981.

Alexander J. MACKENZIE STUART

Alexander J. MACKENZIE STUART
Born on 18 November 1924; British national; Advocate at the Scottish Bar (1951); Queen's Counsel (1963); Judge of the Court of Session (1972); Judge at the Court of Justice from 9 January 1973 to 6 October 1988; President of the Court of Justice from 10 April 1984 to 6 October 1988; in recognition of his services, was created a Baron of the United Kingdom with the title of Lord Mackenzie-Stuart of Dean; died on 1 April 2000.

Jean-Pierre WARNER 

Jean-Pierre WARNER
Born on 24 September 1924; British national; joined British Army (February 1943); commissioned into the Rifle Brigade; served in Europe and Asia; ended military career as Acting Major (1947); obtained 1st in Law Tripos Pt. II (B.A., 1948); called to the Bar by Lincoln's Inn (January 1950); practised at the Chancery Bar (1950-72); Bencher of Lincoln's Inn (from 1966); Councillor, Royal Borough of Kensington (1959-68); Director of Warner & Sons Ltd and subsidiaries (1952-70); Queen's Counsel (November 1972); Advocate General at the Court of Justice from 9 January 1973 to 26 February 1981; died on 1 February 2005.

Gerhard REISCHL

Gerhard REISCHL
Born in Munich on 17 July 1918; German national; Doctor of Laws of the University of Munich (1950); second State examination in law (1951); Assistant Judge, then Local Court Adviser, in the Ministry for Justice of the Land of Bavaria (1951-54); Judge at the Amtsgericht (Local Court), Munich (1954-55); employed in the office of the minister representing Bavaria at federal level (1955-56); Oberregierungsrat, then Regierungsdirektor, at the Chancellery of the Land of Bavaria, in Munich (1956-58); Judge at the Oberlandesgericht München (Higher Regional Court, Munich) (1958-1961); Member of the Bundestag (1961-72); State Secretary, responsible for relations with Parliament, in the ministry of the Federal Minister for Finance (1969-71); Member of the European Assembly (1971-73); Advocate General at the Court of Justice from 9 October 1973 to 11 January 1984; died on 16 April 1998.

Andreas O'KEEFFE

Andreas O'KEEFFE
Born on 4 October 1912; Irish national; LL.B., University College Dublin (1936); Barrister, the King's Inns, Dublin (1935); Senior Counsel (1951); Bencher of the King's Inns (1954); Attorney General (1954 and 1957-65); Judge of the Supreme Court (1965); President of the High Court (1966); Judge at the Court of Justice from 12 December 1975 to 16 January 1985; died on 30 December 1994.

Francesco CAPOTORTI

Francesco CAPOTORTI
Born in Naples on 9 February 1925; Italian national; graduated in law (Naples, 1945); Assistant Lecturer at the University of Naples (1946-52); Professor (‘Libero docente') in international law (1951); responsible for international law at the University of Naples (1951-54); Professor Extraordinary of Institutions Governed by Public Law at the University of Cagliari (1954); Resident Professor of International Law at the University of Bari (1955-68); Professor in International Organisation at the University of Naples (1968); Director of the Institute of Public Law in the Faculty of Economics and Commerce at the University of Naples (1970); Professor of Private International Law in the Faculty of Political Science at the University of Rome (1970-76); Judge at the Court of Justice from 3 February to 6 October 1976, then Advocate General from 7 October 1976 to 6 October 1982; died on 4 April 2002.

Giacinto BOSCO 

Giacinto BOSCO
Born on 25 January 1905 in Caserta; Italian national; graduated in law at the University of Naples (1925); Assistant Secretary at the Ministry for Foreign Affairs (1927-32); Professor in international law at the University of Rome (1932); Head of the Faculty of Law of the University of Urbino (1932); Professor in international law at the University of Florence (1933-40) and the University of Rome (1940-75); Director, Institute of International Law in the Faculty of Economics and Commerce at the University of Rome (from 1966); Senator (1948-72); Under-Secretary of State at the Ministry of Defence (1953-58); Vice-President of the Senate (1958-60); Minister of Education (1960-62); Minister of Justice (1962-63); Minister of Labour and Social Security (1963-64 and 1966-68); Minister without Portfolio for United Nations Affairs (1968-69 and 1970); Minister for Finance (1969-1970); Minister of Post and Telecommunications (1970-72); Judge at the Court of Justice from 7 October 1976 to 6 October 1988; died on 11 October 1997.

Adolphe TOUFFAIT 

Adolphe TOUFFAIT
Born on 29 March 1907 in Rennes; French national; holder of a Master's Degree in Private Law; Substitute Judge at the Cour d'appel de Douai, then at the Cour d'appel de Paris (1933-36); Deputy Public Prosecutor at the tribunal d'Évreux (1936-40); Public Prosecutor at the tribunal d'Évreux (1940); Director of the Department for Investigation of War Crimes (1946); Director of the Private Office of the Minister for the Armed Forces (1947-49); Director of the Private Office of the Minister of State for Information (1949-53); Director of the Private Office of the Minister of State, Vice-President of the Council (1953); First Deputy Public Prosecutor at the tribunal de la Seine (1954-56); Director of the Private Office of the Minister for Justice (1957-58); Public Prosecutor at the tribunal de la Seine (1958-61); Judge at the Cour de cassation (1961); Inspector-General of Court Services (1962); First President of the Cour d'appel de Paris (1962-68); Public Prosecutor at the Cour de cassation (1968-76); Judge at the Court of Justice from 26 October 1976 to 6 October 1982; died on 12 March 1990.

Thymen KOOPMANS 

Thymen KOOPMANS
Born on 11 August 1929 in Amsterdam; Netherlands national; Doctor of Laws (University of Amsterdam, 1953); Advocaat and Procureur in Haarlem (1953-56); served in the Ministry of Justice, The Hague (1956-62); Legal Adviser in the Legal Department of the Council of the European Communities (1962-65); Full Professor (1965-78), Dean of the Faculty of Jurisprudence (1973-75), at the University of Leiden; Member of the Netherlands Royal Academy of Science (1978); Judge of the Hoge Raad der Nederlanden (Supreme Court of the Netherlands) (1978-79); Judge at the Court of Justice from 29 March 1979 to 29 March 1990.

Ole DUE 

Ole DUE
Born on 10 February 1931; Danish national; Director at the Ministry of Justice; Adviser ad interim to the Court of Appeal; Member of the Danish delegation to the Hague Conference on Private International Law; Judge at the Court of Justice from 7 October 1979 to 6 October 1988; President of the Court of Justice from 7 October 1988 to 6 October 1994; died on 21 January 2005.

Ulrich EVERLING

Ulrich EVERLING
Born in Berlin on 2 June 1925; German national; Doctor of Laws, University of Göttingen (1952); took up employment in the Legal Department of the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs (1953); Head of Section in the European Division of the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs (1958); Head of the European Policy Division (1970); Lecturer (1971), Honorary Professor (1975) at the University of Münster; Member of the Executive Committee of the Deutsche Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft für Europarecht; Member of the Board of Administration of the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law in Heidelberg; Judge at the Court of Justice from 6 October 1980 to 6 October 1988.

Alexandros CHLOROS

Alexandros CHLOROS
Born in Athens on 15 August 1926; Greek national; degree in jurisprudence, University of Oxford; Lecturer at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth (1954), then at King's College London (1959); Professor of Comparative Law at the University of London (1966); Doctor of Laws (LLD), University of London (1972); Director of the Centre of European Law, King's College (1974); Judge at the Court of Justice from 12 January 1981 to 15 November 1982, the date of his death.

Gordon SLYNN 

Gordon SLYNN
Born on 17 February 1930; British national; Barrister, Master of the Bench, later Treasurer, Gray's Inn; Queen's Counsel; Junior Counsel at the Labour Ministry, Junior and Leading Counsel to the Treasury; Recorder; Judge at the High Court (Queen's Bench Division); Chairman of the Employment Appeal Tribunal; Visiting Professor, University of Durham, Cornell (USA), Mercer (USA), King's College, London; Advocate General at the Court of Justice from 26 February 1981 to 6 October 1988; Judge from 7 October 1988 to 10 March 1992; died on 7 April 2009.

Simone ROZÈS 

Simone ROZÈS
Born on 29 March 1920 in Paris; French national; degree in law; postgraduate qualifications in public law, in political economy and in political science; Permanent attaché at the Ministry for Justice (1950); Head of the Private Office of the Minister for Justice (1958); Vice-President of the Tribunal de grande instance de Paris (Regional Court, Paris) (1969); Director at the Ministry for Justice (1973); Administrator, École nationale de la magistrature (1974); President of the Tribunal de grande instance de Paris (1976); Advocate General at the Court of Justice from 18 March 1981 to 13 February 1984.

Pieter VERLOREN van THEMAAT 

Pieter VERLOREN van THEMAAT
Born on 16 March 1916 in Rotterdam; Netherlands national; Doctor of Laws, University of Leiden (1946); held various posts in the Ministry for Economic Affairs and the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, and was in particular Principal Ministerial Adviser and Director of Market Organisation (1945-58); Director-General at the Commission of the European Communities (1958-67); Professor of Social and Economic Law at the University of Utrecht (1967-81); Advocate General at the Court of Justice from 4 June 1981 to 13 January 1986; died on 4 July 2004.

Fernand GRÉVISSE

Fernand GRÉVISSE
Born on 28 July 1924; French national; Junior Member and Member of the French Council of State; Head of the Private Office of the Minister for Justice; Director-General responsible for Forestry; Director-General of the General Secretariat of the Government; Member of the Council of State, President of the First Sub-Section of the Judicial Section of the Council of State; Professor at the Institut d'études politiques, Paris; President of the Section for Public Works, Council of State; Judge at the Court of Justice from 4 June 1981 to 6 October 1982 and from 7 October 1988 to 6 October 1994; died on 11 January 2002.

Kai BAHLMANN 

Kai BAHLMANN
Born on 29 January 1927 in Düsseldorf; German national; legal studies at the Universities of Cologne, Bonn and Freiburg (1947-51); Trainee Lawyer (1952-56), then Junior Legal Official (1956), in the Oberlandesgerichtsbezirk Köln (Cologne higher regional judicial district); Scientific assistant at the Bundesverfassungsgericht (Federal Constitutional Court) (1958-60); Associate Judge at the Landgericht Köln (Cologne Regional Court) (1959); Official (1961), Director in the Division for Public Law (1969) at the Federal Ministry for Justice; Judge at the Court of Justice from 7 October 1982 to 6 October 1988; died on 28 May 2009.

G. Federico MANCINI

G. Federico MANCINI
Born on 23 December 1927; Italian national; Titular Professor of Labour Law (Urbino, Bologna, Rome) and Comparative Private Law (Bologna); Member of the High Council of the Judiciary (1976-81); Advocate General at the Court of Justice (1982-88); Judge at the Court of Justice from 26 September 1988 to 21 July 1999, the date of his death.

Yves GALMOT 

Yves GALMOT
Born on 5 January 1931 in Paris; French national; degree in law, higher diploma in public law; graduated from the Ècole nationale d'administration (1956); Legal Assistant at the Council of State (1956); Chargé de Mission, later Technical Adviser, at the office of the High Commissioner for Youth and Sport (1961); Legal Adviser at the Council of State (1962); Commissaire du gouvernement at the Assemblée du Contentieux of the Council of State (1964-68); Deputy Secretary-General, later Secretary-General, of the Entreprise minière et chimique (1970-74); Administrative and Financial Director of the Institut de recherche et de coordination acoustique/musique (IRCAM) at the Beaubourg Centre (from 1974); Member of the Council of State (June 1981); Legal Adviser to the Entreprise de recherche et d'activités pétrolières (October 1981-82); Judge at the Court of Justice from 7 October 1982 to 6 October 1988.

Constantinos KAKOURIS 

Constantinos KAKOURIS
Born on 16 March 1919; Greek national; Lawyer (Athens); Junior Member and subsequently Member of the Council of State; Senior Member of the Council of State; President of the Special Court for actions against judges; Member of the Superior Special Court; General Inspector of Administrative Tribunals; Member of the Supreme Council of Magistrates; President of the Supreme Disciplinary Council at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Judge at the Court of Justice from 14 March 1983 to 6 October 1997; died on 23 March 2000.

Carl Otto LENZ 

Carl Otto LENZ
Born on 5 June 1930; German national; Rechtsanwalt (lawyer); Notary; Secretary-General of the Christian Democratic Group of the European Parliament; Member of the German Bundestag; Chairman of the Legal Committee and of the Committee on European Affairs at the Bundestag; Honorary Professor of European Law at the University of Saarland (1990); Advocate General at the Court of Justice from 11 January 1984 to 6 October 1997.

Marco DARMON

Marco DARMON
Born on 26 January 1930; French national; Law officer in the Ministry of Justice; Lecturer in the Law Faculty in Paris I; Assistant Director at the Office of the Garde des Sceaux (Minister for Justice); President of Chamber at the Cour d'Appel, Paris; Head of the Direction des Affaires Civiles et du Sceau; Advocate General at the Court of Justice from 13 February 1984 to 6 October 1994.

René JOLIET

René JOLIET
Born on 17 January 1938; Belgian national; Ordinary Professor (1974-84) and Special Professor (from 1984), Faculty of Law, University of Liège (Chair of European Community Law); Holder of the Belgian Chair at the University of London, King's College (1977); Visiting Professor at the University of Nancy (1971-78), the Europa Institute of the University of Amsterdam (1976-85), the Catholic University of Louvain-la-Neuve (1980-82) and Northwestern University, Chicago (1974 and 1983); Teacher of European Competition Law at the College of Europe, Bruges (1979-84); Judge at the Court of Justice from 10 April 1984 to 15 July 1995, the date of his death.

Thomas Francis O'HIGGINS 

Thomas Francis O'HIGGINS
Born on 31 July 1916 in Cork; Irish national; studied law (University College and King's Inn, Dublin); Barrister (1938); Senior Counsel (1954); Member of Dáil Eireann (1948-73); Minister for Health (1954-57); Presidential Candidate (1966 and 1973); Judge of the High Court (1973); Chief Justice (1974); Judge at the Court of Justice from 16 January 1985 to 6 October 1991; died on 25 February 2003.

Fernand SCHOCKWEILER 

Fernand SCHOCKWEILER
Born on 15 June 1935; Luxembourg national; Ministry of Justice; Senior Government Attaché; Government Adviser at the Comité du Contentieux of the Conseil d'État; Senior Government Adviser at the Ministry of Justice; Judge at the Court of Justice from 7 October 1985 to 1 June 1996, the date of his death.

Jean MISCHO

Jean MISCHO
Born on 7 September 1938; Luxembourg national; studied law and political science (universities of Montpellier, Paris and Cambridge); member of the Legal Service of the Commission and principal administrator in the private offices of two Members of the Commission; held various positions of responsibility in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Grand Duchy; Deputy Permanent Representative of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg to the European Communities; Advocate General at the Court of Justice from 13 January 1986 to 6 October 1991 and from 19 December 1997 to 6 October 2003.

José Carlos de CARVALHO MOITINHO de ALMEIDA

José Carlos de CARVALHO MOITINHO de ALMEIDA
Born on 17 March 1936; Portuguese national; Public Prosecutor's Office, Court of Appeal, Lisbon; Chief Executive Assistant to the Minister for Justice; Deputy Public Prosecutor; Head of the European Law Office; Professor of Community Law (Lisbon); Judge at the Court of Justice from 31 January 1986 to 6 October 2000.

Gil Carlos RODRIGUEZ IGLÉSIAS 

Gil Carlos RODRIGUEZ IGLÉSIAS
Born on 26 May 1946; Spanish national; Assistant Lecturer and subsequently Professor (Universities of Oviedo, Freiburg im Breisgau, Autónoma and Complutense of Madrid, and Granada); Judge at the Court of Justice from 31 January 1986 to 6 October 2003, President from 7 October 1994 to 6 October 2003.

Manuel DIEZ de VELASCO

Manuel DIEZ de VELASCO
Born on 22 May 1926; Spanish national; former Professor of Public and Private International Law at the following universities: Grenada, Barcelona and Universidad Autónoma, Madrid; First Professor of Public International Law at the Universidad Complutense, Madrid; Judge of the Spanish Constitutional Court (1980-86); elector member of the Council of State; Member of the Real Academia de Jurisprudencia (Madrid); Judge at the Court of Justice from 7 October 1988 to 6 October 1994; died on 20 October 2009.

Manfred ZULEEG 

Manfred ZULEEG
Born on 21 March 1935; German national; Academic Assistant at the Institute for European Community Law of the University of Cologne; Professor of Public Law, Public International Law and European Law at the Universities of Bonn and Frankfurt; Judge at the Court of Justice from 7 October 1988 to 6 October 1994.

Walter VAN GERVEN 

Walter VAN GERVEN
Born on 11 May 1935; Belgian national; Professor at the Catholic University of Leuven, the University of Chicago and the University of Amsterdam; Vice-Rector and Member of the Academic Council and Organising Authority of the Catholic University of Leuven; Advocate (Dendermonde, Leuven, Brussels); Chairman of the Commission on Banking; Advocate General at the Court of Justice from 7 October 1988 to 6 October 199494.

Francis Geoffrey JACOBS

Francis Geoffrey JACOBS
Born 1939; Barrister; Queen's Counsel; Official in the Secretariat of the European Commission of Human Rights; Legal Secretary to Advocate General J.-P. Warner; Professor of European Law, University of London; Director, Centre of European Law, King's College London; Author of several works on European law; Advocate General at the Court of Justice from 7 October 1988 to 10 January 2006.

Giuseppe TESAURO 

Giuseppe TESAURO
Born on 15 November 1942; Italian national; Titular Professor of International Law and Community Law at the University of Naples; Advocate before the Court of Cassation; Member of the Council for Contentious Diplomatic Affairs at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Advocate General at the Court of Justice from 7 October 1988 to 4 March 1998.

Paul Joan George KAPTEYN 

Paul Joan George KAPTEYN
Born on 31 January 1928; Netherlands national; official at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Professor, Law of International Organisations (Utrecht and Leiden); Member of the Raad van State; President of the Chamber for the Administration of Justice at the Raad van State; Member of the Royal Academy of Science; Member of the Administrative Council of the Academy of International Law, The Hague; Judge at the Court of Justice from 29 March 1990 to 6 October 2000.

Claus Christian GULMANN 

Claus Christian GULMANN
Born 1942; Official at the Ministry of Justice; Legal Secretary to Judge Max Sørensen; Professor of Public International Law and Dean of the Law School of the University of Copenhagen; in private practice; Chairman and member of arbitral tribunals; Member of Administrative Appeal Tribunal; Advocate General at the Court of Justice from 7 October 1991 to 6 October 1994; Judge at the Court of Justice from 7 October 1994 to 10 January 2006.

John L. MURRAY

John L. MURRAY
Born on 17 June 1943; Irish national; Barrister (1967) and Senior Counsel (1981); private practice at the Bar of Ireland; Attorney General (1987); former Member of the Council of State; former Member of the Bar Council of Ireland; Bencher of the Honourable Society of King's Inns; Judge at the Court of Justice from 7 October 1991 to 5 October 1999.

David Alexander Ogilvy EDWARD 

David Alexander Ogilvy EDWARD
Born on 14 November 1934; British national; Advocate (Scotland); Queen's Counsel (Scotland); Clerk, and subsequently Treasurer, of the Faculty of Advocates; President of the Consultative Committee of the Bars and Law Societies of the European Community; Salvesen Professor of European Institutions and Director of the Europa Institute, University of Edinburgh; Special Adviser to the House of Lords Select Committee on the European Communities; Honorary Bencher, Gray's Inn, London; Judge at the Court of First Instance from 25 September 1989 to 9 March 1992; Judge at the Court of Justice from 10 March 1992 to 7 January 2004.

Antonio Mario LA PERGOLA 

Antonio Mario LA PERGOLA
Born 1931; Professor of Constitutional Law and General and Comparative Public Law at the Universities of Padua, Bologna and Rome; Member of the High Council of the Judiciary (1976-78); Member of the Constitutional Court and President of the Constitutional Court (1986-87); Minister for Community Policy (1987-89); elected to the European Parliament (1989-94); Judge at the Court of Justice from 7 October 1994 to 31 December 1994; Advocate General at the Court of Justice from 1 January 1995 to 14 December 1999; Judge at the Court of Justice from 15 December 1999 to 3 May 2006; died on 18 July 2007.

Georges COSMAS 

Georges COSMAS
Born on 14 July 1932; Greek national; called to the Athens Bar; Junior Member of the Greek Council of State in 1963; Member of the Greek Council of State in 1973 and State Counsellor (1982-94); Member of the Special Court which hears actions against judges; Member of the Superior Special Court which, in accordance with the Greek Constitution, has competence to harmonise the case-law of the three supreme courts of the country and ensures judicial review of the validity of both legislative and European elections; Member of the High Council of the Judiciary; Member of the High Council of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs; President of the Trademark Court of Second Instance; Chairman of the Special Legislative Drafting Committee of the Ministry of Justice; Advocate General at the Court of Justice from 7 October 1994 to 6 October 2000.

Jean-Pierre PUISSOCHET 

Jean-Pierre PUISSOCHET
Born 1936; State Counsellor (France); Director, subsequently Director-General, of the Legal Service of the Council of the European Communities (1968-73); Director-General of the Agence nationale pour l'emploi (1973-75); Director of General Administration, Ministry of Industry (1977-79); Director of Legal Affairs of the OECD (1979-85); Director of the Institut international d'administration publique (1985-87); Jurisconsult, Director of Legal Affairs in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1987-94); Judge at the Court of Justice from 7 October 1994 to 6 October 2006.

Philippe LÉGER

Philippe LÉGER
Born 1938; A member of the judiciary serving at the Ministry for Justice (1966-70); Head of, and subsequently Technical Adviser at, the Private Office of the Minister for Living Standards in 1976; Technical Adviser at the Private Office of the Garde des Sceaux (1976-78); Deputy Director of Criminal Affairs and Reprieves at the Ministry of Justice (1978-83); Senior Member of the Court of Appeal, Paris (1983-86); Deputy Director of the Private Office of theMinister for Justice, Minister for Justice (1986); President of the Regional Court at Bobigny (1986-93); Head of the Private Office of the Minister for Justice, and Advocate General at the Court of Appeal, Paris (1993-94); Associate Professor at René Descartes University (Paris V) (1988-93); Advocate General at the Court of Justice from 7 October 1994 to 6 October 2006.

Günter HIRSCH 

Günter HIRSCH
Born on 30 January 1943; German national; Director at the Ministry of Justice of Bavaria; President of the Constitutional Court of Saxony and the Court of Appeal of Dresden (1992-94); Honorary Professor of European Law and Medical Law at the University of Saarbrücken; Judge at the Court of Justice from 7 October 1994 to 14 July 2000.

Michael Bendik ELMER

Michael Bendik ELMER
Born on 26 February 1949; Danish national; official at the Ministry of Justice in Copenhagen from 1973; Head of Department at the Ministry of Justice (1982-87 and 1988-91); Judge at the Østre Landsret (Eastern Regional Court) (1987-88); Vice-President of the Sø-og Handelsretten (Maritime and Commercial Court) (1988); Minister in the Ministry of Justice responsible for Community Law and Human Rights (1991-94); Advocate General at the Court of Justice from 7 October 1994 to 18 December 1997.

Peter Jann

Peter JANN
Born 1935; Doctor of Law of the University of Vienna (1957); appointed Judge and assigned to the Federal Ministry of Justice (1961); Judge in press matters at the Straf-Bezirksgericht, Vienna (1963-66); spokesman of the Federal Ministry of Justice (1966-70) and subsequently appointed to the international affairs department of that Ministry; Adviser to the Justice Committee and spokesman at the Parliament (1973-78); appointed as Member of the Constitutional Court (1978); permanent Judge-Rapporteur at that court until the end of 1994; Judge at the Court of Justice from 19 January 1995 to 6 October 2009.

Hans RAGNEMALM

Hans RAGNEMALM
Born on 30 March 1940; Swedish national; Doctor of Law and Professor of Public Law at Lund University; Professor of Public Law and Dean at the University of Stockholm; Parliamentary Ombudsman; Judge at the Supreme Administrative Court of Sweden; Judge at the Court of Justice from 19 January 1995 to 6 October 2000.

Leif SEVÓN

Leif SEVÓN
Born on 31 October 1941; Finnish national; Doctor of Law (OTL) of the University of Helsinki; Director at the Ministry of Justice; Adviser in the Trade Directorate of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Judge at the Supreme Court; Judge at the EFTA Court; President of the EFTA Court; Judge at the Court of Justice from 19 January 1995 to 16 January 2002.

Nial FENNELLY

Nial FENNELLY
Born on 3 May 1942; Irish national; M.A. (Econ.) from University College, Dublin; Barrister-at-Law; Senior Counsel; Chairman of the Legal Aid Board and of the Bar Council; Advocate General at the Court of Justice from 19 January 1995 until 6 October 2000.

Romain SCHINTGEN 

Romain SCHINTGEN
Born 1939; university studies in the Faculties of Law and Economics at Montpellier and Paris; Doctor of Laws (1964); Lawyer (1964); Lawyer-advocate (1967); General Administrator at the Ministry of Labour and Social Security; Member (1978-89), then President (1988-89), of the Economic and Social Council; Director of the Société nationale de crédit et d'investissement and of the Société européenne des satellites (until 1989); Member (1993-95), then Chairman of the Board (1995-2004), of the International University Institute of Luxembourg; Lecturer at the University of Luxembourg; Government Representative on the European Social Fund Committee, the Advisory Committee on Freedom of Movement for Workers and the Administrative Board of the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (until 1989); Judge at the Court of First Instance from 25 September 1989 to 11 July 1996; Judge at the Court of Justice from 12 July 1996 to 14 January 2008.

Krateros IOANNOU 

Krateros IOANNOU
Born on 3 June 1935; Greek national; called to the Thessaloniki Bar in 1963; received Doctorate in International Law from the University of Thessaloniki in 1971; Professor of Public International Law and Community Law in the Law Faculty of the University of Thrace; Honorary Legal Adviser to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Member of the Hellenic Delegation to the General Assembly of the UN from 1983; Chairman of the Committee of Experts on the Improvement of the Procedure under the Convention on Human Rights of the Council of Europe from 1989 to 1992; Judge at the Court of Justice from 7 October 1997 to 10 March 1999, the date of his death.

Siegbert ALBER 

Siegbert ALBER
Born on 27 July 1936; German national; studied law at the Universities of Tübingen, Berlin, Paris, Hamburg, Vienna, Turin and Cambridge; Member of the Bundestag (1969-80); elected as Member of the European Parliament (1977); participated on numerous committees, in particular as member, then Chairman (1993-94), of the Committee on Legal Affairs and Citizens' Rights; Chairman of the delegation responsible for relations with the Baltic States and of the Subcommittees on Data Protection and on Poisonous or Dangerous Substances; Vice-President of the European Parliament (1984-92); Advocate General at the Court of Justice from 7 October 1997 to 6 October 2003.

Antonio SAGGIO

Antonio SAGGIO
Born on 19 February 1934; Italian national; Judge, Naples District Court; Judge at the Court of Appeal, Rome, and subsequently the Court of Cassation; attached to the Ufficio Legislativo del Ministero di Grazia e Giustizia; Chairman of the General Committee in the Diplomatic Conference which adopted the Lugano Convention; Legal Secretary to the Italian Advocate General at the Court of Justice; Professor at the Scuola Superiore della Pubblica Amministrazione, Rome; Judge at the Court of First Instance from 25 September 1989 to 17 September 1995; President of the Court of First Instance from 18 September 1995 to 4 March 1998; Advocate General at the Court of Justice from 5 March 1998 to 6 October 2000; died on 26 January 2010.

Dámaso Ruiz-Jarabo Colomer

Dámaso RUIZ-JARABO COLOMER
Born 1949; Judge; Member of the Consejo General del Poder Judicial (General Council of the Judiciary); Professor; Head of the Private Office of the President of the Consejo General del Poder Judicial; ad hoc Judge at the European Court of Human Rights; Judge at the Tribunal Supremo (Supreme Court) from 1996; Advocate General at the Court of Justice from 19 January 1995 to 12 November 2009, the date of his death.

Fidelma O’KELLY MACKEN 

Fidelma O’KELLY MACKEN
Born on 28 February 1942; Irish national; called to the Bar of Ireland (1972); Legal Advisor, Patent and Trade Mark Agents (1973-79); Barrister (1979-95) and Senior Counsel (1995-98) of the Bar of Ireland; member of the Bar of England and Wales; Judge of the High Court in Ireland (1998); Lecturer in Legal Systems and Methods and ‘Averil Deverell' Lecturer in Commercial Law, Trinity College, Dublin; Bencher of the Honourable Society of King's Inns; Judge at the Court of Justice from 6 October 1999 to 13 October 2004.

Ninon COLNERIC

Ninon COLNERIC
Born 1948; studied in Tübingen, Munich and Geneva; following a period of academic research in London, awarded a doctorate in law by the university of Munich; Judge at the Arbeitsgericht Oldenburg; authorised, by the University of Bremen, to teach labour law, sociology of law and social law; Professor ad interim at the faculty of law of the universities of Frankfurt and Bremen; President of the Landesarbeitsgericht Schleswig-Holstein (1989); collaboration, as expert, on the European Expertise Service (EU) project for the reform of the labour law of Kirghizstan (1994-95); Honorary Professor at the University of Bremen in labour law, specifically in European labour law; Judge at the Court of Justice from 15 July 2000 to 6 October 2006.

Stig von BAHR 

Stig von BAHR
Born 1939; has worked with the Parliamentary Ombudsman and in the Swedish Cabinet Office and ministries inter alia as assistant under-secretary in the Ministry of Finance; appointed Judge in the Kammarrätten (Administrative Court of Appeal), Gothenburg, in 1981 and Justice of the Regeringsrätten (Supreme Administrative Court) in 1985; has collaborated on a large number of official reports, mainly on the subject of tax legislation and accounting; has been inter alia Chairman of the Committee on Inflation-Adjusted Taxation of Income, Chairman of the Accounting Committee and Special Rapporteur for the Committee on Rules for Taxation of Private Company Owners; has also been Chairman of the Accounting Standards Board and Member of the Board of the National Courts Administration and the Board of the Financial Supervisory Authority; has published a large number of articles, mainly on the subject of tax legislation; Judge at the Court of Justice from 7 October 2000 to 6 October 2006.
José Narciso da Cunha Rodrigues

José Narciso da Cunha Rodrigues
Born 1940; various offices within the judiciary (1964-77); government assignments to carry out and coordinate studies on reform of the judicial system; Government Agent at the European Commission of Human Rights and the European Court of Human Rights (1980-84); expert on the Human Rights Steering Committee of the Council of Europe (1980-85); member of the Review Commission for the Criminal Code and the Code of Criminal Procedure; Principal State Counsel (1984-2000); member of the Supervisory Committee of the European Union Anti-Fraud Office (OLAF) (1999-2000); Judge at the Court of Justice from 7 October 2000 to 8 October 2012.

Christiaan Willem Anton TimmermansChristiaan Willem Anton Timmermans
Born 1941; Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice of the European Communities (1966-69); official of the European Commission (1969-77); Doctor of Laws (University of Leiden); Professor of European Law at the University of Groningen (1977-89); Deputy Justice at Arnhem Court of Appeal; various editorial positions; Deputy Director-General at the Legal Service of the European Commission (1989-2000); Professor of European Law at the University of Amsterdam; Judge at the Court of Justice from 7 October 2000 to 10 June 2010.

Leendert A. GEELHOED 

Leendert A. GEELHOED
Born 1942; Research Assistant, University of Utrecht (1970-71); Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice of the European Communities (1971-74); Senior Adviser, Ministry of Justice (1975-82); Member of the Advisory Council on Government Policy (1983-90); various teaching assignments; Secretary-General, Ministry of Economic Affairs (1990-97); Secretary-General, Ministry of General Affairs (1997-2000); Advocate General at the Court of Justice from 7 October 2000 to 6 October 2006; died on 20 April 2007.

Christine STIX-HACKL

Christine STIX-HACKL
Born 1957; Doctor of Laws (University of Vienna), postgraduate studies in European Law at the College of Europe, Bruges; member of the Austrian Diplomatic Service (from 1982); expert on European Union matters in the office of the Legal Adviser to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1985-88); Legal Service of the European Commission (1989); Head of the "Legal Service - EU" in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1992-2000, Minister Plenipotentiary); participated in the negotiations on the European Economic Area and on the accession of the Republic of Austria to the European Union; Agent of the Republic of Austria at the Court of Justice of the European Communities from 1995; Austrian Consul-General in Zurich (2000); teaching assignments and publications; Advocate-General at the Court of Justice from 7 October 2000 to 6 October 2006.

Luís Miguel Poiares Pessoa Maduro

Luís Miguel POIARES PESSOA MADURO
Born 1967; degree in law (University of Lisbon, 1990); assistant lecturer (European University Institute, 1991); Doctor of Laws (European University Institute, Florence, 1996); visiting professor (London School of Economics; College of Europe, Natolin; Ortega y Gasset Institute, Madrid; Catholic University, Portugal; Institute of European Studies, Macao); Professor (Universidade Nova, Lisbon, 1997); Fulbright Visiting Research Fellow (Harvard University, 1998); co-director of the Academy of International Trade Law; co-editor (Hart Series on European Law and Integration, European Law Journal) and member of the editorial board of several law journals; Advocate General at the Court of Justice from 7 October 2003 to 6 October 2009.
Konrad Hermann Theodor SchiemannKonrad Hermann Theodor Schiemann
Born 1937; law degrees from Cambridge University; Barrister (1964-80); Queen's Counsel (1980-86); Justice of the High Court of England and Wales (1986-95); Lord Justice of Appeal (1995-2003); Bencher from 1985 and Treasurer in 2003 of the Honourable Society of the Inner Temple; Judge at the Court of Justice from 8 January 2004 to 8 October 2012.

Jerzy Makarczyk

Jerzy MAKARCZYK
Born 1938; Doctor of Laws (1966); Professor of Public International Law (1974); Senior Visiting Fellow at the University of Oxford (1985); Professor at the International Christian University, Tokyo (1988); author of several works on public international law, European Community law and human rights law; member of several learned societies in the field of international law, European law and human rights law; Negotiator for the Polish Government for the withdrawal of Russian troops from Poland; Under-Secretary of State, then Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs (1989-92); Chairman of the Polish delegation to the General Assembly of the United Nations; Judge at the European Court of Human Rights (1992-2002); President of the Institut de droit international (2003); Advisor to the President of the Republic of Poland on foreign policy and human rights (2002-04); Judge at the Court of Justice from 11 May 2004 to 6 October 2009.

Ján Klučka

Ján KLUČKA
Born 1951; Doctor of Law from the University of Bratislava (1974); Professor of International Law at Kosice University (since 1975); Judge at the Constitutional Court (1993); Member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague (1994); Member of the Venice Commission (1994); Chairman of the Slovakian Association of International Law (2002); Judge at the Court of Justice from 11 May 2004 to 6 October 2009.

Kuris

Pranas KŪRIS
Born 1938; graduated in law from the University of Vilnius (1961); Doctorate in legal science, University of Moscow (1965); Doctor in legal science (Dr. hab), University of Moscow (1973); Research Assistant at the Institut des hautes études internationales (Director: Professor C. Rousseau), University of Paris (1967-68); Member of the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences (1996); Doctor honoris causa of the Law University of Lithuania (2001); various teaching and administrative duties at the University of Vilnius (1961-90); Lecturer, Assistant Professor, Professor of Public International Law, Dean of the Faculty of Law; several governmental posts in the Lithuanian Diplomatic Service and Lithuanian Ministry of Justice; Minister for Justice (1990-91), Member of the State Council (1991), Ambassador of the Republic of Lithuania to Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands (1992-94); Judge at the (former) European Court of Human Rights (June 1994 to November 1998); Judge at the Supreme Court of Lithuania and subsequently President of the Supreme Court (December 1994 to October 1998); Judge at the European Court of Human Rights (from November 1998); has participated in various international conferences; member of the delegation of the Republic of Lithuania for negotiations with the USSR (1990-92); author of numerous publications (approximately 200); Judge at the Court of Justice from 11 May 2004 to 6 October 2010.

Uno Lõhmus

Uno Lõhmus
Born 1952; Doctor of Law in 1986; member of the Bar (1977-98); Visiting Professor of Criminal Law at Tartu University; Judge at the European Court of Human Rights (1994-98); Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Estonia (1998-2004); member of the Legal Expertise Committee on the Constitution; consultant to the working group drafting the Criminal Code; member of the working group for the drafting of the Code of Criminal Procedure; author of several works on human rights and constitutional law; Judge at the Court of Justice from 11 May 2004 to 23 October 2013.

lindh

Pernilla LINDH
Born 1945; law graduate of the University of Lund; Legal Secretary and Judge at the District Court, Trollhättan (1971-74); Legal Secretary at the Court of Appeal, Stockholm (1974-75); Judge at the District Court, Stockholm (1975); Adviser on Legal and Administrative Matters to the President of the Court of Appeal, Stockholm (1975-78); Special Adviser at the Domstolverket (National Courts' Administration) (1977); Adviser in the office of the Chancellor of Justice (1979-80); Associate Judge at the Court of Appeal, Stockholm (1980-81); Legal Adviser at the Ministry of Trade (1981-82); Legal Adviser, and subsequently Director and Director-General for Legal Affairs, at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1982-95); title of Ambassador in 1992; Vice-President at the Swedish Market Court; responsible for legal and institutional issues at the time of the EEA negotiations (Deputy Chairperson, then Chairperson, of the EFTA Group) and at the time of the negotiations for the accession of the Kingdom of Sweden to the European Union; Judge at the Court of First Instance from 18 January 1995 to 6 October 2006; Judge at the Court of Justice from 7 October 2006 to 6 October 2011.

Ján MazákJán Mazák
Born 1954; Doctor of Laws, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University, Košice (1978); Professor of Civil Law (1994) and of Community Law (2004); Head of the Community Law Institute at the Faculty of Law, Košice (2004); Judge at the Krajský súd (Regional Court), Košice (1980); Vice-President (1982) and President (1990) of the Mestský súd (City Court), Košice; member of the Slovak Bar (1991); Legal Adviser at the Constitutional Court (1993-98); Deputy Minister for Justice (1998-2000); President of the Constitutional Court (2000-06); member of the Venice Commission (2004); Advocate General at the Court of Justice from 7 October 2006 to 8 October 2012.
Verica Trstenjak
Verica Trstenjak
Born 1962; judicial service examination (1987); Doctor of Laws of the University of Ljubljana (1995); Professor (since 1996) of Theory of Law and State (jurisprudence) and of Private Law; researcher; postgraduate study at the University of Zurich, the Institute of Comparative Law of the University of Vienna, the Max Planck Institute for Private International Law in Hamburg, the Free University of Amsterdam; Visiting Professor at the Universities of Vienna and Freiburg (Germany) and at the Bucerius School of Law in Hamburg; Head of the Legal Service (1994-96) and State Secretary in the Ministry of Science and Technology (1996-2000); Secretary-General of the Government (2000); member of the Study Group on a European Civil Code since 2003; responsible for a Humboldt research project (Humboldt Foundation); publication of more than 100 legal articles and several books on European and private law; ‘Lawyer of the Year 2003' prize of the Association of Slovene Lawyers; member of the editorial board of a number of legal periodicals; Secretary-General of the Association of Slovene Lawyers and member of a number of lawyers' associations, including the Gesellschaft für Rechtsvergleichung; Judge at the Court of First Instance from 7 July 2004 to 6 October 2006; Advocate General at the Court of Justice from 7 October 2006 to 28 November 2012.

kasel

 Jean-Jacques Kasel
Born 1946; Doctor of Laws; special degree in Administrative Law (Université libre de Bruxelles), 1970); graduated from the Institut d'études politiques, Paris (Ecofin, 1972); trainee lawyer; Legal Adviser of the Banque de Paris et des Pays-Bas (1972-73); Attaché, then Legation Secretary at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1973-76); Chairman of working groups of the Council of Ministers (1976); First Embassy Secretary (Paris), Deputy Permanent Representative to the OECD (liaison officer to UNESCO, 1976-79); Head of the Office of the Vice-President of the Government (1979-80); Chairman of the EPC working groups (Asia, Africa, Latin America); Adviser, then Deputy Head of Cabinet, of the President of the Commission of the European Communities (1981); Director, Budget and Staff Matters, at the General Secretariat of the Council of Ministers (1981-84); Special Adviser at the Permanent Representation to the European Communities (1984-85); Chairman of the Budgetary Committee; Minister Plenipotentiary, Director of Political and Cultural Affairs (1986-91); Diplomatic Adviser of the Prime Minister (1986-91); Ambassador to Greece (1989-91, non-resident); Chairman of the Policy Committee (1991); Ambassador, Permanent Representative to the European Communities (1991-98); Chairman of Coreper (1997); Ambassador (Brussels, 1998-2002); Permanent Representative to NATO (1998-2002); Marshal of the Court and Head of the Office of HRH the Grand Duke (2002-07); Judge at the Court of Justice from 15 January 2008 to 7 October 2013.

George Arestis
George Arestis
Born 1945; graduated in law from the University of Athens (1968); MA in Comparative Politics and Government, University of Kent at Canterbury (1970); practice as a lawyer in Cyprus (1972-82); District Court Judge (1982); President of the District Court (1995); Administrative President of the District Court of Nicosia (1997-2003); Judge at the Supreme Court of Cyprus (2003); Judge at the Court of Justice from 11 May 2004 to 6 October 2014.

Albert VAN HOUTTE

Albert VAN HOUTTE
Born on 12 November 1914 in Nieuwkapelle; Belgian national; Doctor of Laws (1938), degree in political and social economy (1940) at the Catholic University of Louvain; Assistant Lecturer at the Institute of Economic Sciences of the Catholic University of Louvain (1939-40); Lawyer (1938-40); Economics and Tax Adviser of the Boerenbond, Principal Private Secretary of the Minister for Agriculture (1944-45); Secretary of the European Office of the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) in Rome, responsible for the liquidation of the International Institute of Agriculture (1946-49); Chairman of the Belgian Committee of the FAO, Member of the FAO Council and of various committees (1950-53); Registrar of the Court of Justice of the ECSC from 26 March 1953 to 6 October 1958 and of the Court of Justice of the European Communities from 7 October 1958 to 9 February 1982; died on 15 May 2002.

Paul HEIM

Paul HEIM
Born on 23 May 1932 in Vienna; British national; studied law at Kings College, University of Durham, and Lincoln's Inn (1950-55); called to the bar in London; Deputy Registrar at the Supreme Court of Kenya (1955); practised as a lawyer (1957-58 and 1961-62); Judge of first instance (1958); Senior Deputy Registrar at the Supreme Court of Kenya (1963); Assistant Administrator in the Registry of the European Court of Human Rights, Strasbourg (1965); Administrator in the Secretariat of the European Commission of Human Rights (1966); Administrator (1967), Principal Administrator (1969), Deputy Head of the Private Office (1969-73) at the Council of Europe; Head of Division (1973), Director of the Sessions Service (1980), at the European Parliament; Registrar of the Court of Justice from 10 February 1982 to 9 February 1988.

Jean-Guy GIRAUD

Jean-Guy GIRAUD
Born on 12 April 1944; French national; law degrees from the University of Paris I, the Institut d'études politiques, Paris, and the School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University; Administrator in the General Secretariat of the European Parliament; Principal Administrator in the Secretariat of the Committee on Budgets; Head of Division in the Secretariat of the Committee on Institutional Affairs and the Committee on Budgets; Adviser, and subsequently Director, in the Private Office of the President of the European Parliament (institutional, legal and budgetary matters); Acting Director of the Directorate-General for Committees; Registrar of the Court of Justice from 10 February 1988 to 9 February 1994.

Grass

Roger Grass
Born 1948; Graduate of the Institut d'études politiques, Paris, and awarded higher degree in public law; Deputy Procureur de la République attached to the Tribunal de grande instance, Versailles; Principal Administrator at the Court of Justice; Secretary-General in the office of the Procureur Général attached to the Court of Appeal, Paris; Private Office of the Minister for Justice; Legal Secretary to the President of the Court of Justice; Registrar of the Court of Justice from 10 February 1994 to 6 October 2010.

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The General Court

José Luis Da Cruz Vilaça

José Luis da Cruz Vilaça
Born 1944; degree in law and master's degree in political economy at the University of Coimbra; Doctor in International Economics (University of Paris I - Panthéon Sorbonne); compulsory military service performed in the Ministry for the Navy (Justice Department, 1969-72); Professor at the Catholic University and the New University of Lisbon; formerly Professor at the University of Coimbra and at Lusíada University, Lisbon (Director of the Institute for European Studies); Member of the Portuguese Government (1980-83): State Secretary for Home Affairs, State Secretary in the Prime Minister's Office and State Secretary for European Affairs; Deputy in the Portuguese Parliament, Vice-President of the Christian-Democrat Group; Advocate General at the Court of Justice (1986-88); President of the Court of First Instance of the European Communities (1989-95); lawyer at the Lisbon bar, specialising in European and competition law (1996-2012); member of the Working Party on the Future of the European Communities' Court System - ‘Due Group' (2000); Chairman of the Disciplinary Board of the European Commission (2003-07); President of the Portuguese Association of European Law (since 1999); Judge at the Court of Justice since 8 October 2012.

Donal Patrick Michael Barrington

Donal Patrick Michael Barrington
Born 1928; Barrister; Senior Counsel; Specialist in constitutional and commercial law; Judge at the High Court; Chairman of the General Council of the Bar of Ireland; Bencher of King's Inns; Chairman of the Educational Committee Council of King's Inns; Judge at the Court of first Instance from 1 September 1989 to 10 January 1996.

Antonio Saggio

Antonio Saggio
Born 1934; Judge, Naples District Court; Adviser to the Court of Appeal, Rome, and subsequently the Court of Cassation; attached to the Ufficio Legislativo del Ministerio di Grazia e Giustizia; Chairman of the General Committee in the Diplomatic Conference which adopted the Lugano Convention; Legal Secretary to the Italian Advocate General at the Court of Justice; Professor at the Scuola Superiore della Pubblica Amministrazione, Rome; Judge at the Court of First Instance from 25 September 1989 to 17 September 1995; President of the Court of First Instance from 18 September 1995 to 4 March 1998; Advocate General at the Court of Justice from 5 March 1998 to 6 October 2000; died on 26 January 2010.

David Alexander Ogilvy Edward

David Alexander Ogilvy Edward
Born on 14 November 1934; British national; Advocate (Scotland); Queen's Counsel (Scotland); Clerk, and subsequently Treasurer, of the Faculty of Advocates; President of the Consultative Committee of the Bars and Law Societies of the European Community; Salvesen Professor of European Institutions and Director of the Europa Institute, University of Edinburgh; Special Adviser to the House of Lords Select Committee on the European Communities; Honorary Bencher, Gray's Inn, London; Judge at the Court of First Instance from 25 September 1989 to 9 March 1992; Judge at the Court of Justice from 10 March 1992 to 7 January 2004.

Heinrich Kirschner

Heinrich Kirschner
Born 1938; Magistrate, Land Nordrhein-Westfalen, Official at the Ministry of Justice (Department of Community Law and Human Rights); Assistant in the officie of the Danish member of the Commission and subsequently penalties in the Federal Ministry of Justice; Principal of the Minister's Officie, final post; Director (Ministerialdirigent) of an under-department dealing with criminal law; Judge at the Court of First Instance from 25 September 1989 to 6 February 1997.

Christos Yeraris

Christos Yeraris
Born 1938; Greek national; Member of the Simvoulio tis Epikratias (Council of State) and subsequently State Counsellor; Member of the Anotato Idiko Dikastirio (Superior Special Court) and of the Dikastiria Simaton (Trade Mark Courts); Adviser to the Government on the application of Community law; Professor of Community Law at the National School of Public Administration and the Adult Education Institute; Judge at the Court of First Instance from 1 September 1989 to 18 September 1992.

Romain Alphonse Schintgen

Romain Schintgen
Born 1939; university studies in the Faculties of Law and Economics at Montpellier and Paris; Doctor of Laws (1964); Lawyer (1964); Lawyer-advocate (1967); General Administrator at the Ministry of Labour and Social Security; Member (1978-89), then President (1988-89), of the Economic and Social Council; Director of the Société nationale de crédit et d'investissement and of the Société européenne des satellites (until 1989); Member (1993-95), then Chairman of the Board (1995-2004), of the International University Institute of Luxembourg; Lecturer at the University of Luxembourg; Government Representative on the European Social Fund Committee, the Advisory Committee on Freedom of Movement for Workers and the Administrative Board of the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (until 1989); Judge at the Court of First Instance from 25 September 1989 to 11 July 1996; Judge at the Court of Justice from 12 July 1996 to 14 January 2008.

Cornelis Paulus Briët

Cornelis Paulus Briët
Born 1944; Executive Secretary, D. Hudig & Co., Insurance Broker, and subsequently Executive Secetary with Granaria B.V.; Judge, Arrondissementsrechtsbank (District Court), Rotterdam; Member of the Court of Justice of the Dutch Antilles; Cantonal Judge, Rotterdam; Vice-President, Arrondissementsrechtsbank Rottedam; Judge at the Court of First Instance from 25 September 1989 to 17 September 1998.

Bo Vesterdorf

Bo Vesterdorf
Born 1945; Lawyer-linguist at the Court of Justice; Administrator in the Ministry of Justice; Examining Magistrate; Legal Attaché in the Permanent Representation of Denmark to the European Communities; Temporary Judge at the Østre Landsret (Court of Appeal); Head of the Constitutional and Administrative Law Division in the Ministry of Justice; Director of a department in the Ministry of Justice; University Lecturer; Member of the Steering Committee on Human Rights at the Council of Europe (CDDH), and subsequently Member of the Bureau of the CDDH; in 2004 Member of the "Ad-hoc committee on judicial training" at the Academy of European Law, Trier (Germany); Judge at the Court of First Instance since 25 September 1989; President of the Court of First Instance from 4 March 1998 to 17 September 2007.

Rafael García-Valdecasas y Fernández

Rafael García-Valdecasas y Fernández
Born 1946; Abogado del Estado (at Jaén and Granada); Registrar to the Economic and Administrative Court of Jaén, and subsequently of Cordoba; Member of the Bar (Jaén and Granada); Head of the Spanish State Legal Service for cases before the Court of Justice of the European Communities; Head of the Spanish delegation in the working group created at the Council of the European Communities with a view to establishing the Court of First Instance of the European Communities; Judge at the Court of First Instance from 25 September 1989 to 17 September 2007.

Jacques Biancarelli

Jacques Biancarelli
Born 1948; Inspector at the Treasury; Junior Member and subsequently Member of the Conseil d'État; Legal Adviser to several ministers; Lecturer in a number of French professional colleges and institutes of heigher education; Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice; Head of Legal Department, Crédit Lyonnais; President of the Association Européenne pour le Droit Bancaire et Financier (AEDBF); Judge at the Court of First Instance from 1 September 1989 to 17 Septembr 199595.

Koen Lenaerts

Koen Lenaerts
Born 1954; lic.iuris, Ph.D. in Law (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven); Master of Laws, Master in Public Administration (Harvard University); Lecturer (1979-83), subsequently Professor of European Law, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (since 1983); Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice (1984-85); Professor at the College of Europe, Bruges (1984-89); Member of the Brussels Bar (1986-89); Visiting Professor at the Harvard Law School (1989); Judge at the Court of First Instance of the European Communities from 25 September 1989 to 6 October 2003; Judge at the Court of Justice since 7 October 2003.

Christopher William Bellamy

Christopher William Bellamy
Born 1946; Barrister, Middle Temple; Queen's Counsel, specialising in Commercial law, European Law and public Law; co-author of the three first editions of "Bellamy & Child, Common Market Law of Competition", Judge at the Court of First Instance from 10 March 1992 to 15 December 1999.

Andreas Kalogeropoulos

Andreas Kalogeropoulos
Born 1944; lawyer (Athens); legal secretary to Judges Chloros and Kakouris at the Court of Justice; professor of public and Community law (Athens); legal adviser; senior attaché at the Court of Auditors; Judge at the Court of First Instance from 18 September 1992 to 17 September 1998.

Virpi Tiili

Virpi TIILI
Born 1942; Doctor of Laws of the University of Helsinki; assistant lecturer in civil and commercial law at the University of Helsinki; Director of Legal Affairs and Commercial Policy at the Central Chamber of Commerce of Finland; Director-General of the Office for Consumer Protection, Finland; member of a number of committees and advisory bodies, inter alia Chairperson of the Supervisory Commission for the Marketing of Medicinal Products (1988-90), member of the Advisory Council on Consumer Affairs (1990-94), member of the Competition Council (1991-94) and member of the editorial board of the Nordic Intellectual Property Law Review (1982-90); Judge at the Court of First Instance from 18 January 1995 to 6 October 2009.

Josef Azizi
Josef Azizi
Born 1948; Doctor of Laws and Master of Sociology and Economics of the University of Vienna; Lecturer and Senior Lecturer at the Vienna School of Economics, the Faculty of Law of the University of Vienna and various other universities; Honorary Professor at the Faculty of Law of the University of Vienna; Ministerialrat and Head of Department at the Federal Chancellery; member of the Steering Committee on Legal Cooperation of the Council of Europe (CDCJ); representative ad litem before the Verfassungsgerichtshof (Constitutional Court) in proceedings for review of the constitutionality of federal laws; Coordinator responsible for the adaptation of Austrian federal law to Community law; Judge at the General Court since 18 January 1995 to 16 September 2013.
Pernilla Lindh

Pernilla Lindh
Born 1945; law graduate of the University of Lund; Legal Secretary and Judge at the District Court, Trollhättan (1971-74); Legal Secretary at the Court of Appeal, Stockholm (1974-75); Judge at the District Court, Stockholm (1975); Adviser on Legal and Administrative Matters to the President of the Court of Appeal, Stockholm (1975-78); Special Adviser at the Domstolverket (National Courts' Administration) (1977); Adviser in the office of the Chancellor of Justice (1979-80); Associate Judge at the Court of Appeal, Stockholm (1980-81); Legal Adviser at the Ministry of Trade (1981-82); Legal Adviser, and subsequently Director and Director-General for Legal Affairs, at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1982-95); title of Ambassador in 1992; Vice-President at the Swedish Market Court; responsible for legal and institutional issues at the time of the EEA negotiations (Deputy Chairperson, then Chairperson, of the EFTA Group) and at the time of the negotiations for the accession of the Kingdom of Sweden to the European Union; Judge at the Court of First Instance from 18 January 1995 to 6 October 2006; Judge at the Court of Justice from 7 October 2006 to 6 October 2011.

André Potocki

André Potocki
Born 1950; Secretary General to the First President of the Cour de CAssation (1988); Vice-President of the Tribunal de Grande Instance, Paris (1990); Head of the European and International Affairs of the Ministry of Justice (1991); Judge, Court of Appeal, Paris, and Associate Professor at Paris X, Nanterre University (1994); Judge at the Court of First Instance from 18 September 1995 to 19 September 2001.

Rui Manuel Gens de Moura Ramos

Rui Manuel Gens de Moura Ramos
Born 1950; Professor, Law Faculty, Coimbra, and the Law Faculty of the Catholic University, Oporto; Jean Monnet Chair; Course Director at the Academy of International Law, The Hague, (1984) and visiting professor at Paris I Law University (1995); Protuguese Government delegate to United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL); Judge at the Court of First Instance from 18 September 1995 to 31 March 2003.

John D. Cooke

John D. Cooke
Born 1944; called to the Bar of Ireland 1966; admitted also to the Bars of England & Wales, of Northern Ireland and of New South Wales; Practising barrister 1966-1996; admitted to the Inner Bar in Ireland (Senior Counsel) 1980 and New South Wales 1991; President of the Council of the Bars and Law Societies of the European Community (CCBE) 1985-1986; Visiting Fellow, Faculty of Law, University College Dublin; Fellow of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators; President of the Royal Zoological Society of Ireland 1987-90; Bencher of the Honorable Society of Kings Inns, Dublin; Honorary Bencher of Lincoln's Inn, London; Judge at the Court of First Instance from 10 January 1996 to 15 September 2008.

Jörg Pirrung

Jörg Pirrung
Born 1940; academic assistant at the University of Marburg; Doctor of Laws (University of Marburg); adviser, subsequently head of the section for private international law and, finally, head of a subdivision for civil law in the German Federal Ministry of Justice; member of the Governing Council of Unidroit (1993-1998); chairman of the commission of the Hague Conference on Private International Law to draw up the Convention concerning the protection of children (1996); honorary professor at the University of Trier (private international law, international procedural law, European law); member of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Max Planck Institute for Foreign Private and Private International Law in Hamburg since 2002; Judge at the Court of First Instance from 11 June 1997 to 17 September 2007.

Paolo Mengozzi

Paolo Mengozzi
Born 1938; Professor of International Law and holder of the Jean Monnet Chair of European Community law at the University of Bologna; Doctor honoris causa of the Carlos III University, Madrid; visiting professor at the Johns Hopkins University (Bologna Center), the Universities of St. Johns (New York), Georgetown, Paris-II, Georgia (Athens) and the Institut universitaire international (Luxembourg); co-ordinator of the European Business Law Pallas Program of the University of Nijmegen; member of the consultative committee of the Commission of the European Communities on public procurement; Under-Secretary of State for Trade and Industry during the Italian tenure of the Presidency of the Council; member of the working group of the European Community on the World Trade Organisation (WTO) and director of the 1997 session of The Hague Academy of International Law research centre devoted to the WTO; Judge at the Court of First Instance from 4 March 1998 to 3 May 2006; Advocate General at the Court of Justice since 4 May 2006.

Mihalis Vilaras
Mihalis Vilaras
Born 1950; lawyer (1974-80); national expert with the Legal Service of the Commission of the European Communities, then Principal Administrator in Directorate General V (Employment, Industrial Relations, Social Affairs); Junior Officer, Junior Member and, since 1999, Member of the Greek Council of State; Associate Member of the Superior Special Court of Greece; Member of the Central Legislative Drafting Committee of Greece (1996-98); Director of the Legal Service in the General Secretariat of the Greek Government; Judge at the General Court from 17 September 1998 to 25 October 2010.
Meij

Arjen W. H. Meij
Born 1944; Justice at the Supreme Court of the Netherlands (1996); Judge and Vice-President at the College van Beroep voor het Bedrijfsleven (Administrative Court for Trade and Industry) (1986); Judge Substitute at the Court of Appeal for Social Security, and Substitute Member of the Administrative Court for Customs Tariff Matters; Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice of the European Communities (1980); Lecturer in European Law in the Law Faculty of the University of Groningen and Research Assistant at the University of Michigan Law School; Staff Member of the International Secretariat of the Amsterdam Chamber of Commerce (1970); Judge at the Court of First Instance from 17 September 1998 to 13 September 2010.

Hubert Legal

Hubert Legal
Born 1954; State Counsellor (France); graduate of the École normale supérieure de Saint-Cloud and of the École nationale d'administration; Associate Professor of English (1979-1985); rapporteur and subsequently Commissaire du Gouvernement in proceedings before the judicial sections of the Conseil d'État (1988-1993): legal adviser in the Permanent Representation of the French Republic to the United Nations in New York (1993-1997); Legal Secretary in the Chambers of Judge Puissochet at the Court of Justice (1997-2001); Judge at the Court of First Instance from 19 September 2001 to 17 September 2007.

Ena Cremona
Ena Cremona
Born 1936; Bachelor's degree (BA) in languages, Royal University of Malta (1955); Doctor of Laws (LLD) of the Royal University of Malta (1958); practising at the Malta Bar from 1959; Legal Adviser to the National Council of Women (1964-79); member of the Public Service Commission (1987-89); board member at Lombard Bank (Malta) Ltd, representing the government shareholding (1987-93); member of the Electoral Commission since 1993; examiner for doctoral theses in the Faculty of Laws of the Royal University of Malta; Member of the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) (2003-04); Judge at the General Court from 12 May 2004 to 22 March 2012.
Daniel Šváby

Daniel Šváby
Born 1951; Doctor of Laws (University of Bratislava); Judge at District Court, Bratislava; Judge, Appeal Court, responsible for civil law cases, and Vice-President, Appeal Court, Bratislava; member of the civil and family law section at the Ministry of Justice Law Institute; acting Judge responsible for commercial law cases at the Supreme Court; Member of the European Commission of Human Rights (Strasbourg); Judge at the Constitutional Court (2000-04); Judge at the Court of First Instance from 12 May 2004 to 6 October 2009; Judge at the Court of Justice since 7 October 2009.

Vilenas Vadapalas
Vilenas Vadapalas
Born 1954; Doctor of Laws (University of Moscow); Doctor habil. in Law (University of Warsaw); taught, at the University of Vilnius, international law (from 1981), human rights law (from 1991) and Community law (from 2000); Adviser to the Lithuanian Government on foreign relations (1991-93); member of the coordinating group of the delegation negotiating accession to the European Union; Director-General of the Government's European Law Department (1997-2004); Professor of European Law at the University of Vilnius, holder of the Jean Monnet Chair; President of the Lithuanian European Union Studies Association; Rapporteur of the parliamentary working group on constitutional reform relating to Lithuanian accession; member of the International Commission of Jurists (April 2003); Judge at the General Court from 12 May 2004 to 16 September 2013.
Verica Trstenjak

Küllike Jürimäe
Born 1962; law degree, University of Tartu (1981-86); Assistant to the  Public Prosecutor, Tallinn (1986-91); Diploma, Estonian School of Diplomacy (1991-92); Legal Adviser (1991-93) and General Counsel at the Chamber of Commerce and Industry (1992-93); Judge, Tallinn Court of Appeal (1993-2004); European Masters in Human Rights and Democratisation, Universities of Padua and Nottingham (2002-03); Judge at the General Court from 12 May 2004 to 23 October 2013; Judge at the Court of Justice since 23 October 2013.

Verica Trstenjak

Verica Trstenjak
Born 1962; Judicial service examination (1987); Doctor of Laws of the University of Ljubljana (1995); professor (since 1996) of theory of law and State (jurisprudence) and of private law; researcher; postgraduate study at the University of Zurich, the Institute of Comparative Law of the University of Vienna, the Max Planck Institute for private international law in Hamburg, the Free University of Amsterdam; visiting professor at the Universities of Vienna and Freiburg (Germany) and at the Bucerius School of Law in Hamburg; head of the legal service (1994-96) and State Secretary in the Ministry of Science and Technology (1996-2000); Secretary-General of the Government (2000); Member of the Study Group on a European Civil Code since 2003; responsible for a Humboldt research project (Humboldt Foundation); publication of more than 100 legal articles and several books on European and private law; Prize of the Association of Slovene Lawyers ‘Lawyer of the Year 2003'; Member of the editorial board of a number of legal periodicals; Secretary-General of the Association of Slovene Lawyers and member of a number of lawyers' associations, including the Gesellschaft für Rechtsvergleichung; Judge at the Court of First Instance from 7 July 2004 to 6 October 2006; Advocate General at the Court of Justice from 7 October 2006 to 28 November 2012.

moavero
Enzo Moavero Milanesi
Born 1954; Doctor of Laws (La Sapienza University, Rome); specialised in Community law (College of Europe, Bruges); member of the Bar, legal practice (1978-83); Lecturer in Community Law at the Universities of La Sapienza (Rome) (1993-96), Luiss (Rome) (1993-96 and 2002-06) and Bocconi (Milan) (1996-2000); adviser on Community matters to the Italian Prime Minister (1993-95); official at the European Commission: Legal Adviser and subsequently Head of Cabinet of the Vice-President (1989-92), Head of Cabinet of the Commissioner responsible for the internal market (1995-99) and competition (1999), Director, Directorate-General for Competition (2000-02), Deputy Secretary-General of the European Commission (2002-05), Director-General of the Bureau of European Policy Advisers (BEPA) at the European Commission (2006); Judge at the General Court from 3 May 2006 to 15 November 2011.
wahlNils Wahl
Born 1961; Doctor of Laws, University of Stockholm (1995); Associate Professor (docent) and holder of the Jean Monnet Chair of European Law (1995); Professor of European Law, University of Stockholm (2001); Managing Director of an educational foundation (1993-2004); Chairman of the Nätverket för europarättslig forskning (Swedish Network for European Legal Research) (2001-06); member of the Rådet för konkurrensfrågor (Council for Competition Law Matters) (2001-06); Judge at the General Court from 7 October 2006 to 28 November 2012; Advocate General at the Court of Justice since 28 November 2012.
Teodor Tchipev
Teodor Tchipev
Born 1940; Degree in law at St Kliment Ohridski University, Sofia (1961); Doctorate in law (1977); Lawyer (1963-64); Legal adviser, State Automobile Enterprise for International Transport (1964-73); Research fellow at the Institute of Law, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (1973-88); Associate professor of civil procedure at the Faculty of Law of St Kliment Ohridski University, Sofia (1988-91); Arbitrator at the Court of Arbitration of the Chamber of Trade and Industry (1988-2006); Judge at the Constitutional Court (1991-94); Associate professor at Paissi Hilendarski University, Plovdiv (February 2001 to 2006); Minister for Justice (1994-95); Associate professor of civil procedure at the New Bulgarian University, Sofia (1995-2006); Judge at the General Court from 12 January 2007 to 29 June 2010
Valeriu M. Ciucă
Valeriu M. Ciucă
Born 1960; Degree in law (1984), doctorate in law (1997), Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, Iaşi; Judge at the Court of First Instance, Suceava (1984-89); Military judge at the Military Court, Iaşi (1989-90); Professor at Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, Iaşi (1990-2006); Stipended student specialising in private law at the University of Rennes (1991-92); Assistant professor at Petre Andrei University, Iaşi (1999-2002); Lecturer at the Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale, Dunkirk (Research Unit on Industry and Innovation) (2006); Judge at the General Court from 12 January 2007 to 26 November 2010.
Santiago Soldevila Fragoso
Santiago Soldevila Fragoso
Born 1960; graduated in law from the Autonomous University of Barcelona (1983); Judge (1985); from 1992 Judge specialising in contentious administrative proceedings, assigned to the High Court of Justice of the Canary Islands at Santa Cruz de Tenerife (1992 and 1993), and to the National High Court (Madrid, May 1998 to August 2007), where he decided judicial proceedings in the field of tax (VAT), actions brought against general legislative provisions of the Ministry of the Economy and against its decisions on State aid or the government's financial liability, and actions brought against all agreements of the central economic regulators in the spheres of banking, the stock market, energy, insurance and competition; Legal Adviser at the Constitutional Court (1993-98); Judge at the General Court since 17 September 2007 to 16 September 2013.
Laurent Truchot
Laurent Truchot
Born 1962; graduate of the Institut d'études politiques, Paris (1984); former student of the École nationale de la magistrature (National School for the Judiciary) (1986-88); Judge at the Regional Court, Marseilles (January 1988 to January 1990); Law Officer in the Directorate for Civil Affairs and the Legal Professions at the Ministry of Justice (January 1990 to June 1992); Deputy Section Head, then Section Head, in the Directorate-General for Competition, Consumption and the Combating of Fraud at the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Finance and Industry (June 1992 to September 1994); Technical Adviser to the Minister for Justice (September 1994 to May 1995); Judge at the Regional Court, Nîmes (May 1995 to May 1996); Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice in the Chambers of Advocate General Léger (May 1996 to December 2001); Auxiliary Judge at the Court of Cassation (December 2001 to August 2007); Judge at the General Court since 17 September 2007 to 16 September 2013.
Sten Frimodt Nielsen
Kevin O'Higgins
Born 1946; educated at Crescent College Limerick, Clongowes Wood College, University College Dublin (BA degree and Diploma in European Law) and the King's Inns; called to the Bar of Ireland in 1968; Barrister (1968-82); Senior Counsel (Inner Bar of Ireland, 1982-86); Judge of the Circuit Court (1986-97); Judge of the High Court of Ireland (1997-2008); Bencher of King's Inns; Irish Representative on the Consultative Council of European Judges (2000-08); Judge at the General Court since 15 September 2008 to 16 September 2013.
Hans Jung

Hans Jung
Born 1944; Assistant, and subsequently Assistant Lecturer at the Faculty of Law (Berlin); Rechtsanwalt (Frankfurt am Main); Lawyer-linguist at the Court of Justice; Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice in the Chambers of the President, Mr Kutscher, and subsequently in the Chambers of the German judge; Deputy Registrar at the Court of Justice; Registrar of the Court of First Instance since 10 October 1989; died on 26 September 2009.

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The Civil Service Tribunal
  
Heikki Kanninen 

Heikki Kanninen
Born 1952; graduate of the Helsinki School of Economics and of the Faculty of Law of the University of Helsinki; Legal Secretary at the Supreme Administrative Court of Finland; General Secretary to the Committee for Reform of Legal Protection in Public Administration; Principal Administrator at the Supreme Administrative Court; General Secretary to the Committee for Reform of Administrative Litigation, Counsellor in the Legislative Drafting Department of the Ministry of Justice; Assistant Registrar at the EFTA Court; Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice of the European Communities; Judge at the Supreme Administrative Court (1998-2005); member of the Asylum Appeal Board; Vice-Chairman of the Committee on the Development of the Finnish Courts; Judge at the Civil Service Tribunal from 6 October 2005 to 6 October 2009; Judge at the General Court since 7 October 2009; Vice-President of the General Court since 17 September 2013.

Mahoney

Paul J. Mahoney
Born in 1946; law studies (Master of Arts, Oxford University, 1967; Master of Laws, University College London, 1969); Lecturer, University College London (1967-73); Barrister (London, 1972-74); Administrator/ Principal Administrator, European Court of Human Rights (1974-90); Visiting Professor at the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada (1988); Head of Personnel, Council of Europe (1990-93); Head of Division (1993-95), Deputy Registrar (1995-2001), Registrar of the European Court of Human Rights (2001 to September 2005); President of the Civil Service Tribunal from 6 October 2005 to 6 October 2011.

Tagaras

Haris Tagaras
Born in 1955; law graduate (University of Thessaloniki, 1977); Special Diploma in European Law (Institute for European Studies, Free University of Brussels, 1980); Doctorate in Law (University of Thessaloniki, 1984); Lawyer-linguist at the Council of the European Communities (1980-82); Researcher at the Thessaloniki Centre for International and European Economic Law (1982-84); Administrator at the Court of Justice of the European Communities and at the Commission of the European Communities (1986-90); Professor of Community Law, International Private Law and Human Rights at Athens Panteion University (since 1990); external consultant for European matters at the Ministry of Justice and member of the Permanent Committee of the Lugano Convention (1991-2004); member of the national Postal and Telecommunications Commission (2000-02); member of the Thessaloniki Bar, lawyer to the Court of Cassation; founder member of the Union of European Lawyers (UAE); associate member of the International Academy of Comparative Law; Judge at the Civil Service Tribunal from 6 October 2005 to 6 October 2011.

Irena BorutaIrena Boruta
Born in 1950; law graduate of the University of Wrocław (1972), Doctorate in Law (Łodz, 1982); lawyer at the Bar of the Republic of Poland (since 1977); Visiting Researcher (University of Paris X, 1987-88; University of Nantes, 1993-94); expert of Solidarność (1995-2000); Professor of Labour Law and European Social Law at the University of Łodz (1997-98 and 2001-05), Associate Professor at Warsaw School of Economics (2002), Professor of Labour Law and Social Security Law at Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University, Warsaw (2000-05); Deputy Minister for Labour and Social Affairs (1998-2001); member of the negotiation team for the accession of the Republic of Poland to the European Union (1998-2001); representative of the Polish Government to the International Labour Organisation (1998-2001); author of a number of works on labour law and European social law; Judge at the Civil Service Tribunal from 6 October 2005 to 7 October 2013.
Gervasoni

Stéphane Gervasoni
Born 1967; graduate of the Institut d'études politiques, Grenoble (1988) and the École nationale d'administration (1993); Junior Officer at the Council of State (Judge-Rapporteur in the Litigation Division (1993-97) and Member of the Social Affairs Division (1996-97)); Legal Adviser at the Council of State (1996-2008); Senior Lecturer at the Institut d'études politiques, Paris (1993-95); Commissaire du gouvernement attached to the Special Pensions Appeal Commission (1994-96); Legal Adviser to the Ministry of the Civil Service and to the City of Paris (1995-97); Secretary-General of the Prefecture of the Département of the Yonne, Sub-Prefect of the District of Auxerre (1997-99); Secretary-General of the Prefecture of the Département of Savoie, Sub-Prefect of the District of Chambéry (1999-2001); Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice of the European Communities (2001-05); full member of the Appeals Board of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) (2001-05); Judge at the European Union Civil Service Tribunal (2005-11, President of Chamber from 2008 to 2011); Councillor of State, Deputy President of the Eighth Chamber of the Litigation Division (2011-13); Member of the Appeals Board of the European Space Agency (2011-13); Judge at the General Court since 16 September 2013.

  
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